Punjab, or Panjab (panj-ab, 'five rivers;' the Pentapotamia of the Greeks), a province in the NW. of India, bordering on Cashmere, is watered by the Indus and its five great affluents - the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. Till the formation in 1901 of the North-west Frontier Province (incorporating almost all the Punjab territory lying beyond the Indus), the total area had been 14S,966 sq. miles, with a population (1891) of 25,130,127; but since then the area is 133,741 sq. miles, and the population (1901) 23,235,917 - 2,905,000 being in the numerous native states. The capital is Lahore, but Delhi is more populous. Amritsar, third in size, is the religious capital of the Sikhs. The northern parts are traversed by spurs from the Himalayas. In the south is the Salt Range, 2000 to 5000 feet high, between the Indus and the Jhelum. The climate in the plains is most oppressively hot and dry in summer, reaching in May 87.4o to 116.6° F. in the shade; but is cool, and sometimes frosty, in winter. Little rain falls except in the districts along the base of the Himalayas. Trees are few in number and small, and fuel is so scarce that cow-dung is much used in its stead. Wheat of excellent quality is produced, and indigo, sugar, cotton, tobacco, opium, tea, rice, barley, millet, maize, and numerous vegetables and fruits are grown. The manufacturing industry - cottons, wood-work, iron, leather, gold and silver lace, silk, and shawls - is carried on for the most part in the great towns. Punjab exports indigo, grain, salt, metals, spices, tea, tobacco, manufactured cottons, hides, and leather to Kabul, Cashmere, Turkestan, and Tibet; and imports dyes, goats' wool, raw silk, fruits, ghee, horses, furs, timber, and shawl cloth. The inhabitants are chiefly Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, and Pathans. Of the whole population, 56 per cent. were Mohammedans, 38 Hindus, and 6 Sikhs.