Rangoon', the capital of Burma, stands on the Hlaing or Rangoon River, 20 miles from its entrance into the Gulf of Martaban. The existing city is almost entirely modern, built since the British took possession in 1852. It extends along the left bank of the Hlaing, the docks being opposite to it at the suburb of Da-la, on the other side of the river. Behind is the large military cantonment, grouped round the fortified hill (166 feet) on which stands the Shway-Dagon pagoda, 'the most venerated object of worship in all the Indo-Chinese countries.' It is built of brick, is lavishly gilded, and tapers up to a cone 321 feet high; it is said to have been erected in the 6th century b.c. The streets are laid out regularly; the river is carefully embanked; there are five markets and an excellent water-supply; the thoroughfares are well lighted and traversed by tramway cars; and there has been an elective municipality since 1883. Forts and batteries protect the town. The principal buildings are the public and governmental offices, the Anglican cathedral (whose foundation-stone was laid by Lord Dufferin in 1886), the native pagodas, the chief jail of Lower Burma, the Phayre Museum in the horticultural gardens, St John's College, the high school, a hospital, etc. Along the riverside are numerous rice-husking-mills and sawmills. Pop. (1852) 25,000; (1872) 89,897; (1881) 134,176; (1901) 234,885. Rangoon is the chief port of Burma (q.v.), about 86 per cent. of the total trade of that country passing in and out here. Under British sway, its trade has grown wonderfully. A town has existed here since the 6th century B.C., which was called Dagon till its capture by the Burmese sovereign Alompra in 1760, when it was renamed and rebuilt. It was first held by the British in 1825-27.