Ravenna, a walled city of Italy, 43 miles E. of Bologna, once close to, but now some 5 miles from the Adriatic, with which it is connected by the Corsini Canal. It has been the seat of an archbishop since 438, and possesses a museum, a public library, a picture-gallery, municipal buildings (with a leaning tower), a theatre, etc. It manufactures silk, linen, paper, and glass. The streets are wide, and the squares are adorned with statues of the popes. Pop. 64,000. Deserted by the sea, and strongly entrenched by canals and marshes, Ravenna became the refuge of the Emperor Honorius (402), and the capital of Italy for the next 350 years. It attained its greatest glory under Theodoric the Ostrogoth (493-526), whose mausoleum (La Rotonda) - now empty - is without the walls. Conquered by the generals of Justinian, Ravenna was the seat of exarchs from Constantinople until 752, when it was taken by the Lombards, and afterwards by the Franks, by whom it was gifted to the pope. A republic in the early part of the 13th century, governed by its own dukes in the 14th, subject to Venice after 1440, it was won by Pope Julius II. in 1509, and continued papal until 1860. There are at least six churches of the time of Galla Placidia (390- 450), the sister of Honorius and mother of Valen-tinian III. The round campaniles, perhaps of the 10th century, form an architectural feature peculiar to Ravenna. Dante died at Ravenna in 1321, and is buried there. A column, 2 miles from the walls, commemorates the fall of Gaston de Foix at the head of the French army of Louis XII., after a bloody and useless victory over the papal and Spanish troops in 1512. Byron resided at Ravenna, 1819-21.