Rhode Island, the smallest of the United States, and one of the original thirteen states of the Union, is not itself an island, but takes its name from the island of Rhode Island (perhaps a corruption of the Dutch Roodt Eylandt, ' Red Island') in Narragansett Bay, which is but 15 miles long by 3 1/2 broad. The length of the state from north to south is not quite 50 miles, its width about 40 miles, and its area 1085 sq. m. The northern and eastern sections are hilly, and the land slopes toward a level region in the south. The coast along the Atlantic Ocean measures about 45 miles, but Narragansett Bay penetrates inland some 30. The southern coast west of Point Judith is low and sandy. To the west the shores are formed by high rocky cliffs interspersed with beaches of sand. Newport (q.v.), Narragansett Pier, and Watch Hill, on the ocean coast, are famous seaside resorts. Coal of inferior quality has been mined; and there are deposits of iron ore, and excellent limestones and granite. Market-gardening is a leading occupation. Cotton manufacturing, with dyeing, bleaching, and calico-printing, are the great industries. The principal towns are Providence (since 1900 sole capital), Pawtucket, Woonsocket, Newport (till 1900 joint capital with Providence), and Central Falls. The Northmen are supposed to have visited Rhode Island in the 10th century. The first permanent settlement was made at Providence by Roger Williams in 1636. Pop. (1730) 17,935; (1830) 97,199; (1900) 428,556.