Richmond, an ancient municipal borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on the left bank of the deep-channelled Swale, 49 miles by a branch-line NW. of York. Its Norman castle (1072-1146), now utilised for barracks, stores, etc, has a very fine banqueting-hall and a keep 100 feet high. Other buildings are the parish church, with good wood-carvings; Queen Elizabeth's grammar-school (1567; rebuilt, 1849-68); the market-house (1854); and the Perpendicular tower of a Franciscan friary (1258). The racecourse (847 feet above sea-level) commands a magnificent view. Till 1867 Richmond returned two members, and then till 1885 one. Pop. 3830. See works by R. Gale (Latin, 1722), Clarkson (1821), Whitaker (2 vols. 1823), Robinson (1833), and Longstaffe(1852).
Richmond, a town of Surrey, 8 1/2 miles WSW. of London (by rail 9 1/2, by river 16), stands partly on the summit and declivity of Richmond Hill, and partly on the level right bank of the Thames. The Terrace, stretching along the brow of the hill, commands an unrivalled prospect of hill and dale, woodland and winding stream; and one of the fairest river-views in England may be gained from Richmond Bridge, which, 100 yards long, was built in 1774-77 at a cost of £26,000. Only a gateway remains of the ancient royal palace of Sheen, where died Edward III., Anne of Bohemia, Henry VII., and Elizabeth, and which was rebuilt by Henry V. and Henry VII. (1409), who renamed the place Richmond after his own former Yorkshire earldom. That palace, which has memories also of Wolsey, Charles V., and many others, was dismantled in 1648; but the splendid deer-park, formed by Charles I. in 1634, remains. It covers 2253 acres; and its brick wall is nearly 8 miles in circumference. Scott here makes Jeanie Deans have her audience with Queen Caroline. The well-known 'star and Garter,' which dates from 1738, was largely destroyed by fire in 1870, but rebuilt in 1872-74 at a cost of £24,000; its banqueting-house escaped, built by Barry in 1865. At the parish church are buried the poet Thomson, Kean, Lady Di Beau-clerk, and Dr John Moore; and here, too, Swift's Stella was baptised. St Mathias' (1858) is a striking building by Scott, with a spire 195 feet high; the municipal buildings, opened by the Duke of York in 1893, cost £24,000; and there are also a Wesleyan theological college (1834), a free library (1881), etc.; whilst Richmond worthies, other than those above mentioned, have been Reynolds, Gainsborough, Collins, and Earl Russell. Market and nursery gardening is a chief industry. Richmond was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1890. Pop. (1861) 7423; (1901) 31,672. See works by Crisp (1866) and Chancellor (1885 and 1894).
Richmond, (1) capital of Wayne county, Indiana, on the East Fork of Whitewater River, 69 miles by rail NNW. of Cincinnati. It was founded by the Society of Friends, who in 1859 established Earlham College here, for both sexes. There are manufactures of agricultural implements, machinery, boilers, flour, etc. Pop. (1880) 12,743; (1900) 18,226. - (2) Capital of Madison county, Kentucky, 120 miles by rail S. of Cincinnati. It is the seat of the Central University (Presbyterian; 1874). Pop. 4700. - (3) The capital of Virginia, on the left bank of the James River, at the head of tide water, 150 miles from its month, and 116 by rail S. of Washington. It is a port of entry, and vessels drawing 14 feet of water can come up to the lower end of the city, where there are large docks. Richmond is picturesquely situated on a group of hills, the summit of one - Shockoe Hill - being occupied by the capitol (1796), which possesses a marble statue of Washington, and in whose grounds are statues of Henry Clay and 'stonewall' Jackson, and the Washington monument, a noble bronze group by Thomas Crawford. Patrick Henry is buried in St John's churchyard, and President Monroe and Jefferson Davis in Hollywood Cemetery, where is a Confederate monument 90 feet high. In the city are Richmond College (Baptist; 1832) and the Virginia Medical College. The James River Falls here supply immense water-power for tobacco-factories, rolling-mills, iron-foundries, nail-works, machine and locomotive-works, flour, meal-flour, and paper mills, and fertiliser-works. The chief exports are cotton, flour, and tobacco. Richmond was founded in 1737, and became the capital in 1779. On 26th December 1811 the burning of a theatre cost sixty lives. In 1861 Richmond was selected as the Confederate capital, but on 2d April 1865 it had to surrender, after almost a year's siege and a series of sanguinary battles. A considerable portion of the city was burned by the retreating Confederates. Pop. (1860) 37,910; (1870) 51,038; (1900) 85,050.
Richmond, a SE. suburb of Melbourne (q.v.).