Rip'on, a city in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the Ure, 23 miles NW. of York, 28 N. of Leeds, and 11 N. of Harrogate. A monastery, founded here in 660 by St Cuthbert and other monks of Melrose, was granted about 664 to St Wilfrid, who rebuilt the church with stone, and dedicated it to St Peter. Willibrord, the apostle of the Frisians, was trained in this monastery, which in 678 was made the seat of a short-lived bishopric, re-erected in 1836 after a lapse of more than eleven centuries. The beautiful minster, which from the Conquest to the Dissolution was the church of Augustinian canons, was built between 1154 and 1520, so exhibits every variety of style from Transition-Norman to Perpendicular. A cruciform pile, 266 feet long, with three towers 120 feet high, which lost their spires in 1660, and with a Saxon crypt, where a hole called 'st Wilfrid's Needle' was anciently used as an ordeal of chastity, it suffered much through the Scots (1319), decay, and vandalism, but in 1861-76 was restored by Sir G. G. Scott at a cost of £40,000. An obelisk, 90 feet high, in the market-place was erected in 1781 by W. Aislabie, for sixty years one of the two members for Ripon, whose representation was reduced to one in 1867, and merged in the county in 1885. At the free grammar-school (1546) Bishop Stubbs was educated. Studley Royal, the fine seat of the Marquis of Ripon, is 2 miles south-west; and near it is Fountains Abbey (q.v.). Ripon spurs, once famous, belong to the past, but saddle-trees are manufactured, besides varnish, leather, machinery, etc. The municipal borough was chartered by James I. Pop. 5150. See works by Gent (1733), Waddi-love (1810), Walbran, Fowler (1888), and on the cathedral by Archdeacon Dauks (1S99).