Ross and Cromarty, a Highland county, the third largest in Scotland, extends from the German Ocean to the Atlantic, and is bounded N. by Sutherland, S. by Inverness-shire. In 1890-91 it was finally formed into a single county by the boundary commissioners, who also added to it the small Ferintosh (detached) district of Nairnshire, and a much smaller fragment from Inverness-shire. Its mainland portion measures 75 by 67 miles, and the total area is 2,084,900 acres, or 3260 sq. m., of which 103 are water and 736 belong to a dozen islands - the Lewis, Tanera, Ewe, etc. The east coast is indented by the Dornoch, Cromarty, and Moray Firths; the west coast by eight sea-lochs (Broom, Gruinard, Tor-ridon, Carron, &c). The chief of the innumerable streams are the Oykell, Alness, and Conon; the Falls of Glomach, on a head-water of the Elchaig, in the SW. are 370 feet high; and beautiful Loch Maree is the largest of nearly a hundred good-sized fresh-water lakes. Mam Sodhail (3862 feet), on the Inverness-shire border, is the highest of more than thirty summits exceeding 3200 feet above sea-level, others being Ben Dearg (3547), Benmore (3505), Ben Wyvis (3429), and Ben Attow (3383). The high grounds afford good pasture, and systematic sheep-farming dates from about 1764. It reached its zenith during 1860-70, when 400,000 sheep were grazed in the county. Less than 7 per cent. of the entire area is arable, and less than 70 sq. m. is occupied by woods and plantations. Whisky is distilled, and the salmon and sea fisheries are very valuable. Montrose was defeated at Invar-charron (1650), and a small Jacobite force in Glen-shiel (1718). Sir Thomas Urquhart, Lord Lovat, and Hugh Miller were natives. The chief places are Dingwall, Tain, Stornoway, Fortrose, Cromarty, Strathpeffer, and Invergordon; and the county returns one member. Pop. (1801) 56,318; (1851) 82,707; (1901) 76,135.