Rotterdam, the busiest port of Holland, stands on both sides of the Maas, 19 miles from its mouth, 16 by rail SE. of the Hague, and 45 SW. of Amsterdam. Its trade grew at an extraordinarily rapid rate after the separation of Holland from Belgium, and in the second half of the 19th century; the quays measure 15 miles, and there are spacious docks. Since 1872 seagoing vessels have ceased to approach Rotterdam by the old channel of Brill (Brielle); they have used instead the New Waterway - i.e. the Maas and the Scheur, the latter of which has been connected with the sea by a canal cut through the Point (Hoek) of Holland, Avhich now has a depth never less than 22 feet at low tide, and big ships are able to reach the sea in two hours from Rotterdam. The imports consist principally of mineral ores and metals, grain (wheat, rye, oats, maize), coal, oil (petroleum chiefly), seeds, tallow and similar greasy substances, sugar, rice, tobacco, hides, indigo, etc.; whilst the more important exports are linen, flax, butter, cheese, cattle, and spirits (gin, &c). There are iron and other metal works, shipbuilding, distilling, sugar-refining, and the manufacture of tobacco, chemicals, etc. The town is intersected by canals. On the south side of the river, opposite the city proper, are the ironworks, shipbuilding yards, and docks of the island of Fijenoord, connected with the other bank by two lofty bridges (one a railway bridge). In the city the more important buildings are the Gothic church of St Lawrence (15th century), with a very large organ, the tombs of Witt and other Dutch admirals, and a lofty tower (295 feet high); the Boymans Museum (1847), with a fine collection of paintings by Dutch masters; the yacht club-house, containing an ethnological collection; the town-house, exchange, and similar public buildings. The public institutions include an academy of art and science (nearly 1100 pupils), schools of music, navigation, and the technical arts, and an excellent zoological garden. Pop. (1830) 72,300; (1858) 104,724; (1903) 357,474. Rotterdam counts as her most illustrious sons Erasmus and the poet Tollens; James, Duke of Monmouth, Grinling Gibbons, and Mrs Molesworth were also born here. The place was captured by Francis of Brederode in 1488, lost to the Austrians in the following year, and occupied by the Spaniards in 1572.