Rouen (Roo-ong'; Lat. Rotomagus), formerly capital of Normandy, and now chief town of Seine-Inferieure, and a great manufacturing city, is situated on the Seine's right bank, 87 miles NW. of Paris. The ramparts have been converted into boulevards, and the modern streets are well and regularly built; but old Rouen still largely consists of ill-built picturesque streets and squares, with tall, narrow, quaintly carved, wood-framed and gabled houses. The Seine, over 300 yards broad, makes Rouen, although 80 miles from the sea, the fourth shipping port of France; and operations, in the way of deepening the river and building quays, are yearly adding to its capacity and importance, £750,000 having been expended on the port since 1831. A stone bridge and a suspension bridge lead to the Faubourg St Sever on the left bank. Rouen possesses several remarkably beautiful Gothic churches - in particular the cathedral (13th century onwards), St Ouen (14th-15th century; perhaps the best specimen of Gothic in existence), and St Maclou (florid style of the end of the 15th century). The archiepiscopal cathedral, begun by Philippe Auguste, has a very rich west facade, and two fine though unfinished west towers - the south one called the Tour de Beurre (1485- 1507), but is disfigured by a lofty cast-iron spire (487 1/2 feet) erected upon the central tower in 1876. It contains in its twenty-five highly ornamented chapels numerous monuments of great interest, especially those of Rollo and of his son William Longsword. The heart of Richard Coeur de Lion, once buried there, is now preserved in the Museum of Antiquities. Among other noteworthy buildings in Rouen are the palais de justice (15th century); the hotel-de-ville, with its public library of 150,000 volumes, and its picture-gallery; and the Hotel Dieu. The principal branches of industry are manufactures of cotton, nankeens, dimity, lace, cotton-velvets, shawls, hosiery, mixed silk and wool fabrics, blankets, flannels, hats, cordage, cotton and linen yarns, shot, steel, lead, chemicals, paper, confectionery, etc. There are also shipbuilding yards and engineering works. Pop. (1872) 102,470; (1901) 110,717. The first home of the Norman dukes, Rouen was captured by Philippe Auguste (1204), was regained by England (1419-49), and in 1431 witnessed the burning of Joan of Arc, a statue of whom adorns La Place de la Pucelle. Rouen was the birthplace of Corneille, Fontenelle, Boieldieu, and Armand Carrel, and the death-place of Clarendon. It was occupied by the Germans in the war of 1870-71.