Sachsen. See Saxony, Saxon States.
Saco (Saw'ko), a port of Maine, 16 miles by rail WSW. of Portland, on the Saco River, here crossed by a bridge to Biddeford, with falls of 50 feet supplying water-power for cotton and shoe factories, sawmills, machine-shops, etc. Pop. 6175. - The Saco River rises in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and runs 170 miles SE. through Maine to the Atlantic.
Sad'owa. See Koniggratz.
Safed, a town of Palestine, 6 miles NW. of the Lake of Tiberias, famous as a stronghold of the crusaders and of the Knights Templars, lost after much fighting in 1266. It is still one of the four holy cities of the Jews, and has a pop. of 25,000, most of whom are Jews.
Saffi, or Asfi, a seaport of Morocco, stands on a little bay on the Mediterranean coast, 120 miles WNW. of the city of Morocco. Pop. 9000.
Saffron-Walden, a municipal borough of Essex, 15 miles S. of Cambridge, 27 NNW. of Chelmsford, and 45 by a branch-line (1865) NNE. of London. The saffron crocus was formerly cultivated here. The parish church (Perpendicular) has a spire 108 feet high, and brasses and monuments - one to Lord Chancellor Audley (1488-1544). There are also remains of a Norman castle, a corn exchange (1848), a town-hall (1879), a cattle-market (1834), and a grammar-school, founded in 1423. Audley End, 1 1/2 mile SW., the seat of Lord Braybrooke, was built in 1603 by Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, and is still a magnificent mansion, though partly demolished since 1701. Pop. (1851) 5911; (1901)5896. See works by Lord Braybrooke (1836) and John Player (1845).
Sagar, a low, swampy, sacred island (area, 225 sq. m.), at the mouth of the Hooghly, with a lighthouse (1808) and telegraph station.
Saghalien, or Sakhalin (Sa-ha-leen'; but usu. Sagay'lien), is a long (670 miles) and narrow (20 to 150 miles) island, running N. and S., off the east coast of the Maritime Province of Siberia. Owing to the vicinity of the misty chilly Sea of Okhotsk, to the ice-floes off the east coast, and to the dense forests on the mountains (5000 feet), the rainfall is heavy and the climate is raw and cold. The streams and the adjoining seas teem with fish. Petroleum and naphtha exist, and coal (over 2,000,000 tons in 1890) is mined. Area, 29,550 sq. m.; pop. in 1905, 29,000 - Russians (many of them convicts), Gilyaks, and Ainos. In 1875 the Japanese were compelled to cede the southern part to Russia (in exchange for some of the Kuriles), and the whole island became a great Russian convict settlement. But in 1905, after the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese resumed possession of the southern half.