Sacramento, the largest river of California, rises in the NE. part of the state, its head-stream, Pitt River, draining Goose Lake, and flows 500 miles SW., S., and SSW. to Suisun Bay, through which its waters pass into San Pablo Bay and so to the Pacific. It is navigable for small vessels to Red Bluff, nearly 250 miles. Near its mouth it receives the San Joaquin.
Sacramento, capital of California, is on the east bank of the Sacramento River, at the mouth of American River, 90 miles by boat and rail NE. of San Francisco. The principal public buildings are the state capitol (cost $2,000,000), county court-house (formerly capitol) and hospital, post-office, a Roman Catholic cathedral, the Crocker Art Gallery, and Masonic and Oddfellows' halls. Here are flour and planing mills, carriage, box, and broom factories, foundries, potteries, spice-mills, canneries, and the shops of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Inundations led to the building of a levee in 1862. Sacramento was settled in 1839; but it was not laid out till 1848, after the discovery of gold. In 1854 it became state capital. Pop. (1880) 21,420; (1900) 29,280.