Salzburg (Sahltz'boorg), a crown-land of Austria, bounded W. by Bavaria and the Tyrol, S. by Carinthia, and E. by Styria. Area, 2762 sq. m.; pop. (1880) 163,570; (1900) 192,762. It lies on the northern face of the eastern Alps, and is a mountainous region, attaining 12,000 feet in the Hohe Tauern. The river Salzach (190 miles), a tributary of the Inn, flows E. and then N. through one of the most picturesque of Alpine valleys. Salt is obtained, especially at Hallein (q.v.). Salzburg became Austrian in 1805.
Salzburg, the capital, occupies a charming situation on the Salzach, by rail 195 miles W. by S. of Vienna and 80 miles E. by S. of Munich, where the river passes between two wooded rocks (1716 and 2133 feet); one of which, the Monchsberg (Monk's Hill), is crowned by the old citadel, dating partly from Roman times. The river divides the city into two parts; on the west is the old city, with many dark, winding streets, getting access to the valley and plain on the north through a gallery (440 feet long, 39 feet high, and 23 feet wide), hewn (1767) in the solid rock of the Monchsberg. This portion of the city contains the fine cathedral, with a white marble facade, and built (1614-34) in imitation of St Peter's at Rone; the Romanesque abbey church of St Peter (1127); the palace of the Grand-duke of Tuscany, in the Italian style (1592-1725); the Benedictine monastery, with a valuable library of 65,000 vols. and 900 MSS.; and the archbishop's palace. On the opposite bank lies the modern town, with Italian-looking, flat-roofed houses; here the most prominent buildings are Castle Mirabell (1607); the Capuchin monastery (1599), and St Sebastian's Church (1512), with the monument of Paracelsus. The city possesses also a theological faculty, all that remains of the former university (1623-1810); a public library (1617) of 82,000 vols. and 1400 MSS.; a museum of Celtic and Roman antiquities, etc.; a bronze monument (1842) to Mozart, a native; a new park on the east bank; the government buildings (1588); the town-house (1407), etc. Industry is confined chiefly to the manufacture of musical instruments, marble ornaments, etc. Pop. 33,100. On the site of the Roman Juvavum, which was ruined by the Goths and Huns, Salzburg in the 6th c. was made the seat of a monastery. Its archbishops, who dated from 798, were princes of the empire, generally noted for severity; and in 1732, after five years' bitter persecution, 30,000 Protestants left their homes (as illustrated in Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea) and on the invitation of Frederick-William I. settled in Prussia.