Samo'a. The Samoa or Navigators' Islands are a group of islands in the Western Pacific, crossed by 170° W. and 14° S., between 400 and 500 miles NE. of Fiji. The group consists of nine islands, besides rocks and islets. All, except Rose Island, are volcanic, and are for the most part surrounded with coral-reefs. They are very mountainous, well wooded, and of very fertile soil. Four islands alone are of any size, Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, and Manua (the latter really consisting of three small islands). Savaii, the westernmost and largest, is about 40 miles in length by 20 in breadth, and has an estimated area of 700 sq. m., and one peak which rises to near 5000 feet. Upolu, about 8 miles SE. of Savaii, has an area of between 550 and 600 sq. m.; on its northern side is the bay and harbour of Apia, the centre of all political and commercial life in the Samoan group. Thirty-six miles SE. of Upolu is Tutuila, possessing a well-sheltered harbour in Pango Pango. The climate of Samoa is very moist and variable; the pleasantest time of the year is from May to November; during the rest of the year heavy gales and rains are frequent, and occasionally disastrous hurricanes occur - like that in which H.M.S. Calliope was safely guided out to sea, all the other ships being stranded. Copra, the dried kernel of the cocoa-nut, is the chief article of export; cotton, coffee, tobacco, and cane-sugar being also grown. Fruit is plentiful, and bananas and citrons are exported to New Zealand and Australia. There are rich pastures, upon which imported live-stock thrive. The islands were visited by Bougainville in 1768, and from him they received the name of Iles des Navigateurs, as a tribute to the skill of the native boatmen. After 1889 Great Britain, Germany, and the United States recognised the independence of the Samoan government, making provision for a supreme court and the regulation of taxation and land-claims. By a further agreement between Britain, Germany, and the United States (1899-1900), Upolu and Savaii were assigned absolutely to Germany, and the other islands to the United States. The Samoans belong to the brown Polynesian race, and are a well-formed and prepossessing race, decreasing in numbers, the population being about 39,000, of whom 82,600 are in the German islands. The exports from the German islands of the group were in 1903, £69,250, and the imports £134,050. From the United States islands the exports were £8819, and the imports £32,426. The trade is mostly in the hands of German, British, and American firms. See works by Turner (1884), Churchward (1887), Phillips (1890), and R. L. Stevenson (1892), who from 1889 made Upolu his home, and is buried on the summit of Vailima Mountain there. Sam'oa is the native pronunciation.