Santiago. See Cape Verd Islands.

Santiago

Santiago (San-tee-ah'go), the capital of Chili, stands near the western base of the Andes, 1700 feet above sea-level, and 115 miles by rail ESE. of Valparaiso. The snow-capped Cordilleras seem to enclose it on the north and east; while in the east of the city rises the picturesque Cerro de Santa Lucia (800 feet above the plain), dotted with grottoes, statues, kiosks, restaurants, a historical museum, and an observatory. The small but turbulent stream, the Mapocho, is crossed by five bridges. The city is regularly laid out, lit with gas and the electric light, and has tramways in all directions; most of the houses are of one story only, owing to the earthquakes (the most serious occurred in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1835, 1906). On the great Plaza Independencia are the government palaces, the Grand English Hotel, the cathedral, and the archbishop's palace. On the site of the Jesuit church, burned down in 1863, a monument was erected (1872) in memory of the 2000 worshippers who perished in the fire. Santiago boasts a noble Alameda, adorned with four rows of poplars and statues. Facing it are the university (1842), and the National Institute. The city has also a military school, schools of arts and agriculture, a conservatoire, a national library (1813), with 102,000 volumes; botanical and zoological gardens, etc. The manufactures include cloth, ship's biscuits, beer, brandy, etc, and it has also an ice-factory, a fruit-conserving establishment, and copper-smelting works. Santiago was founded by Pedro de Valdivia in 1541. Pop. (1865) 168,553; (1902) 330,000. - Area of the province, 5223 sq. m.; pop. 485,000.