Santos, a port of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil, founded in 1546, on the island of Sao Vicente. It has fine wharves, tramways, and a good water-supply; but it is hot and unhealthy. A railway (40 miles, 5 of them by cable up the Serra do Mar - 2500 feet) connects it with Sao Paulo, whose port it is. Pop. 40,000.
Saone (Sone), a river of France, an affluent of the Rhone (q.v.), rises in the dep. of Vosges, in the Faucelles Mountains, and flows 282 miles (170 navigable) SW. and S. to the Rhone at Lyons. It receives the Doubs from the left. See Hamer-ton's illustrated description of the river (1887).
Saone-et-Loire (Sone-ay-Lwar), one of the largest deps. of France, part of Burgundy. Area, 3300 sq. m.; pop. (1872) 598,344; (1901) 620,360. There are arrondissements of Autun, Chalon, Charolles, Louhan, and Macon (the capital).
Sao Paulo (Sowng Pow'lo), capital of a Brazilian state, stands on a wide plain bounded by low hills, 4 miles from the Rio Tiete and 310 by rail W. by S. of Rio de Janeiro. The principal buildings are the old Jesuit college, now the government palace, the bishop's palace, and a celebrated law-school. Sao Paulo is the headquarters of the coffee trade, and has cotton-works, with manufactories of tobacco, cigars, spirits, matches, gloves and hats. Pop. 100,000, including 12,000 Italians and 1500 Germans. - The state has an area of 112,330 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,750,000.
Saraswati. See Allahabad.
Saratoff (Sar-ah'toff), a city of Russia, on the Volga's right bank, exactly 500 miles by rail SE. of Moscow. It is a city of broad streets and fine squares, and stands on terraces rising from the river. There are a handsome new cathedral (1825), an old cathedral (1697), and the museum with its art gallery and a library. Manufactures of brandy, liqueurs, flour, oil, and tobacco are carried on. Fishing is prosecuted in the river, and market-gardening (especially fruit and the sun-flower) in the vicinity. Pop. (1830) 50,000; (1870) 85,220; (1897) 137,109.-The government, the east side of which is washed by the Volga, has an area of 32,624 sq. m. and a pop. (1891) of 2,433,445, including several flourishing German colonies (pop. 120,000) which settled here in 1763-65.