Saragossa (Span. Saragoza), a city of Spain, formerly the capital of Aragon, by rail 212 miles NE. of Madrid and 227 W. by N. of Barcelona, stands on the Ebro, which is crossed by a noble stone bridge of seven arches, built in 1437. From afar it has an imposing appearance with its many towers and spires. Saragossa was the Celtiberian Salduba, changed to Cœ;sarea Augusta in 25 b.c., of which the present name is a corruption. One of the first cities of Spain to adopt Christianity (3d century), it was taken by the Goths in the 5th and by the Moors in the 8th century, and was recovered from them in 1118after a five years' siege, during which great part of the inhabitants died of hunger. The most momentous event in its recent history was the siege by the French (June to August 1808 and December 1808 to February 1809), in which the inhabitants offered a most determined resistance, some 60,000 in all perishing. The services of the 'Maid of Saragossa' seem to have been greatly exaggerated by Southey, Byron, and Sir David Wilkie. Saragossa has two cathedrals, the older a Gothic edifice (1316); the more modern (17th century) boasts of a pillar on which the Virgin descended from heaven. The citadel' was anciently the palace of the kings of Aragon and later the headquarters of the Inquisition. There are also a university (1474) with 800 students, and a large archiepiscopal palace. The leaning Torre Nueva, dating from 1504, was in 1890 voted unsafe and doomed to demolition. The industries comprise cloth, silks, leather, soap, and chocolate. Pop. (1900) 99,500. - The province has an area of 6727 sq. m. and a pop. of 422,000.