Saratoga Springs

Saratoga Springs, one of the chief watering-places in the United States, is on a monotonous plateau in New York, 38 miles by rail N. of Albany. It contains about 30 mineral springs, whose saline waters (some chalybeate, some sulphureous, and all impregnated with carbonic acid), prescribed in diseases of the liver, chronic dyspepsia, rheumatism, etc, are bottled in large quantities for exportation. The hotels provide for 20,000 visitors, and life in Saratoga is notorious for luxury. There is a race-track, and regattas are held on Saratoga Lake, 4 miles distant. Twelve miles to the east a handsome obelisk (1877), 155 feet high, on a bluff 350 feet above the Hudson River and overlooking the scene, commemorates the surrender of Burgoyne to Gates, on October 17, 1777. Pop. 13,500.


Sardes. See Sardis.


Sardis, the capital of ancient Lydia in Asia Minor, stood, on the golden-sanded Pactolus, at the northern foot of Mount Tmolus (5906 feet) and 2 1/2 miles S. of the Hermus. On its site is Sart, a small village, with ruin mounds.

Sargasso Sea

Sargasso Sea. See Atlantic Ocean.


Sari (Sah'ree), the decayed capital of the province of Mazanderan, Persia, 18 miles S. of the Caspian Sea. Pop. 8000.


Sar-i-kol, or Sariq-qol, a great valley or depression in Eastern or Chinese Turkestan, on the eastern side of the Pamir plateau.


Sark (Fr. Gers), the smallest of the four Channel Islands (q.v.), 6 miles E. of Guernsey and 12 NNW. of Jersey. Almost entirely rockbound, and only 2 sq. m. in area, it consists of two portions, Great and Little Sark, connected by an isthmus. Fishing and agriculture are the occupations. Pop. 500.


Sark, a Dumfriesshire stream, winding 11 1/4 miles SSW. (mainly along the Border) to the head of the Solway Firth.


Sarnen, capital of one of the divisions of the Swiss canton of Unterwalden, lies on its own lake, 15 miles S. of Lucerne by rail. Pop. 4200.


Sarnia, a town and port of Canada, just below the issue from Lake Huron of the St Clair River, 170 miles WSW. of Toronto by rail. Pop. 8847. See St Clair.


Sarno, a city of Italy, 30 miles by rail E. of Naples, on the farther side of Vesuvius, has an old castle, a cathedral (1625), paper, cotton, linen, silk, and ribbon manufactories. Pop. 18,464.


Sarrakhs. See Sarakhs.


Sarreguemines. See Saargemund.


Sarthe (Sahrt), a dep. of France, north of the Loire, formed out of Anjou and Maine. Area, 2396 sq. m.; pop. (1866) 465,615; (1901) 422,700.


Sarum. See Salisbury.


Sarzana (Sartzah'na), a cathedral city of N. Italy, 8 miles by rail E. of Spezia. Pop. 8016.


Sasebo, a great naval port of Japan, on the west coast of Kiushiu, 30 miles N. of Nagasaki. Pop. 70,000.


Saskatch'ewan, a large river of Canada, whose North Branch rises among the glaciers near Mount Hooker, its South Branch in the north of Montana, flowing respectively 770 and 810 miles before they meet. The river then flows east 282 miles to Lake Winnipeg, from which its waters are carried to Hudson Bay by the Nelson River (q.v.), rendered unnavigable by rapids. With the Nelson, the total length is 1514 miles. The river gives name to a province of the Dominion, constituted in 1905 out of the former territory of Saskatchewan, together with half of Athabasca, and the greater part of Assiniboia; the extended Alberta absorbing the rest of these two territories, which have now disappeared. Area of the province of Saskatchewan, 275,000 sq. m.; pop. 250,000. Regina (pop. 3000) is the capital.