Sax'ony, a kingdom of Germany, fifth in area, but third in population, amongst the states of the empire; it is surrounded by Bohemia, Silesia, Prussian Saxony, and the minor Saxon states. It measures 130 miles E. and W. by 90 miles, and has a total area of 5787 sq. m. (a little smaller than Yorkshire). The greater part of the surface is diversified by the spurs of the Erzgebirge (highest point 3343 feet), with to the west the outliers (2900 feet) of the Fichtelgebirge and to the east the northern extensions (2600 feet) of the Riesengebirge. The northern districts pass over into the great North German plain. In many parts the surface is studded with isolated peaks of basalt and sandstone (e.g. the Saxon Switzerland above Dresden). It lies almost wholly within the basin of the Elbe. The population grows fast: (1815) 1,178,802; (1840) 1,706,276; (1880) 2,972,805; (1900) 4,202,216. By race the 7uajority of the people are Germanised Slavs, close upon 50,000 being Wends, living in Lusatia; more than 96 per cent. are Lutherans, though the royal belonging to Turkey, midway between Rhodes and Crete. Area, 85 sq. m.; pop. 5000 Greeks.