Scotland, the northern part of Great Britain, is washed on the W. and N. by the Atlantic, on the E. by the North Sea, and on the S. is parted from England by the Solway Firth and the (largely artificial) line described in the article Bokders. Its length, from Cape Wrath to the Mull of Galloway, is 274 miles; its breadth varies between 24 and 146 miles; and its total area is 19,777,490 acres or 30,902 sq. m., of which 631 sq. m. are water. The geology, physical geography, meteorology, etc. have been sketched at Great Britain. Of 787 islands, belonging mostly to the Hebrides, Orkneys, or Shetland, sixty-two exceed 3 sq. m. in area, and of these the largest are Long Island (Lewis and Harris, 859 sq. m.), Skye (643), the Mainland of Shetland (378), Mull (347), Islay (246), Pomona (207), Arran (168), Jura (143), and North Uist (136). Of twenty-six rivers flowing direct to the sea the chief are the Tweed (97 miles long), Forth (75), Tay (93), Dee (87), Don (82), Deveron (62), Spey (96), Clyde (106), and Nith (71); and of these the Forth, Tay, and Clyde expand into important estuaries. There is also the Moray Firth; and indeed the whole coast is so intersected by arms of the sea that few places are more than 40 miles inland. Fresh-water lakes are numerous - Lochs Lomond (27 sq. m.), Ness (19), Awe (16), Shin, Maree, Tay, Earn, Leven, Katrine, etc. The division into Highlands and Lowlands is explained at Highlands. In the Lowlands the highest points are Merrick (2764 feet) in Kirkcudbrightshire, and Broad Law (2723) in Peeblesshire; in the Highlands 184 summits exceed 3000 feet above sea-level - among them Ben Nevis (4406), Ben Macdhui (4296), Ben Lawers (4004), Ben Cruachan (3689), Ben Wyvis (3429), and Ben Lomond (3192). See Cheviots, Ochils, Grampians, etc. In the whole of Scotland the percentage of cultivated area is only 24.2 - in Fife as high as 77.8, in Sutherland as low as 2'4. Woods cover less than 1400 sq. m.; and there are 2420 acres of orchards, nearly 5300 of market-gardens, and 1400 of nursery grounds. Between 1857 and 1903 horses increased from 185,406 to 200,530, cattle from 381,053 to 1,247,246, sheep from 5,683,168 to 7,227,395; pigs decreased from 140,354 to 136,771. In 1903 the quantities of the principal minerals raised were, in tons: coal, 34,992,240 (7,448,000 in 1854); ironstone, 846,094; oil-shale, 2,009,265; fireclay, 892,942; igneous rocks and sandstone from quarries, 2,848,275. In 1905 there were in all Scotland about 750 textile factories, with some 2,500,000 spindles, 75,000 power-looms, and 170,000 hands. In shipbuilding there has been of late a minimum output of about 200 vessels of 115,000 tons yearly, a maximum of 380 of 300,000 tons; whilst at the same time foreign and colonial imports ranged between 27,000,000 and 40,000,000, the exports between 18,000,000 and 30,000,000. In 1902, at the twenty-eight principal ports, there entered (including coastwise shipping) 63,395 sailing and steam vessels of 15,643,745 tons, and cleared 62,600 of 16,126,435 tons. The railways grew from 1243 miles in 1857 to 3664 in 1903. Pop. (1801) 1,608,420; (1821) 2,091,521; (1841) 2,620,184; (1861) 3,062,294; (1881) 3,735,573; (1901) 4,472,103, of whom 2,173,755 were males and 2,298,348 females, and 230,800 were Gaelic-speaking. 3,120,241 (69.77 per cent.) lived in the towns. In 1901 the twelve principal towns were Glasgow (pop. 761,709; with suburbs, 1,010,000), Edinburgh (316,837), Dundee (161,173), Aberdeen (153,503), Paisley (79,363), Leith (77,439), Greenock (68,142), Coatbridge (36,991), Kilmarnock (34,165), Kirkcaldy (34,079), Perth (32,873), Hamilton (32,775); the other towns with over 20,000 inhabitants are Motherwell, Falkirk, Ayr, Dunfermline, Arbroath, Airdrie, Inverness, Wishaw; and with over 10,000, Dumbarton, Stirling, Hawick, Port-Glasgow, Rutherglen, Galashiels, Dumfries, Montrose, Peterhead, Musselburgh, Alloa, Forfar, Pollokshaws, Johnstone, Kirkintilloch, and Broughty-Ferry. Most Scotsmen adhere to the Presbyterian churches, but there are also Episcopalians, Independents, Baptists, Methodists, and some 400,000 Roman Catholics (most of them of Irish descent). The officers of state for Scotland are the Secretary for Scotland, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Lord Clerk Register, the Lord Advocate, and the Lord Justice-clerk. The duties of the first, appointed under an Act of 1885 (amended 1887), were transferred to him from the Home Secretary, and relate to education, sanitation, manufactures, prisons, etc. Under the Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1889, many changes were made in the county boundaries, detached portions of Nairn, Perth, Selkirk, etc. being annexed to the counties surrounding them; whilst Orkney and Shetland, united for parliamentary purposes, were dissevered. There thus are thirty-three counties, whose area and population are shown in this table:

Population.

Counties.

Area in statute acres.

1801.

1901.

Aberdeen.........................

1,262,097

121,065

304,439

Argyll...............

2,134,274

81,277

73,642

Ayr...............................

735,262

84,297

254,468

Banff..............................

413,791

37,216

61,488

Berwick.........................

297,161

30,206

30,824

Bute.............................

143,997

11,791

18,787

Caithness.........................

448,867

22,609

33,870

Clackmannan....................

31,876

10,858

32,029

Dumbarton......................

172,677

20,710

113,865

Dumfries.........................

705,946

54,597

72,571

Edinburgh.........................

234,926

122,597

488,796

Elgin..............................

312,346

27,760

44,800

Fife.................

328,427

93,743

218,840

Forfar.........................

569,851

99,053

284,082

Haddington......................

179,142

29,986

38,665

Inverness.........................

2,767,078

72,672

90,104

Kincardine.......................

248,195

26,349

40,923

Kinross.........................

49,812

6,725

6,981

Kirkcudbright...................

610,343

29,211

39,383

Lanark.........................

568,868

147,692

1,339,327

Linlithgow.......................

81,113

17,844

65,708

Nairn.........................

127,906

8,322

9,291

Orkney.........................

240,640

24,445

28,699

Peebles.........................

227,869

8,735

15,066

Perth................

1,664,690

125,583

123,283

Renfrew.........................

162,428

78,501

268,980

Ross and Cromarty........

1,861,572

56,318

76,450

Roxburgh.........................

428,464

33,721

48,804

Selkirk.........................

166,524

5,388

23,356

Shetland.........................

352,876

22,379

28,166

Stirling.........................

298,579

50,825

142,291

Suthurland.......................

1,359,846

23,117

21,440

Wigtown.........................

327,906

22,918

32,685

When the Romans extended their conquests (84 a.d.) to the Forth and Clyde, the country beyond, known to them as Caledonia, was occupied by the Picts, a Celtic people (perhaps partly by Celtic-ised Iberians) speaking Gaelic, who called their country Alban or Albyn; while the south of what is now Scotland was possessed, like south Britain, by Cymric Celts, speaking a kind of Welsh. In the 5th century the Scots came from their home in Ireland into Argyllshire, and after centuries of war with the Picts, put the crown of Scots and Picts on the head of their king, Kenneth, in 843. The Scots, partially Christianised when they came, had Columba as their great missionary, and by means of him and his followers converted the Picts, the Cymri, and the northern tribes of the English, who since the 5th century had established themselves in the eastern parts of Britain as far north as the Forth. In the 10th century the country of the Picts and Scots came to be known by the name of Scotia (till then the name of Ireland), Nova Scotia, or Scotland; and it soon came to include all of what is now called Scotland, and for a time even Cumberland and Westmorland; Cymric Strathclyde became permanently Scottish in the 10th century, and in the same century and the beginning of the next, Lothian, the Merse, and Teviotdale, all heretofore part of Northuinbria, all as English as any part of England, and more Anglian perhaps than any part of the south, were bestowed on the Scottish kings.

The reign of Malcolm Can more (1057-93) was a period of social, political, and religious revolution. Malcolm, long an exile in England, married Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling. Malcolm and his saintly queen (afterwards canonised) encouraged the introduction of English customs and civilisation, the English language, and English settlers; and began the process which led to the conforming of the stubborn Celtic Church to Roman usages. English (Anglo-Saxon) settlers established themselves in large numbers outside of the already purely English region in the south-east, which more and more became the headquarters of the kingdom; and the Anglo-Saxons were soon followed by many Normans, bringing with them a measure of French culture. David (1242-53) greatly promoted the well-being of church and state; and Scotland was a prosperous country till the death of Alexander III. (1286). Then the attempts of Edward I. of England to get Scotland incorporated by hook or crook with the rest of south Britain, led to the long, bloody, and destructive wars of independence, wars disastrous to all save national spirit and energy, and for 400 years Scotland, though free, was poor, barbarous, and torn by dissension. The Celtic element ventured, under the Lord of the Isles, to try conclusions with the Saxon lowlanders at Harlaw in 1411, but were signally worsted. Bannockburn (1314) encouraged the nation to resist to the uttermost the superior might of England; and not till after the Reformation (when Scotland adopted heartily the Presbyterian polity) were the crowns of England and Scotland united in the person of James VI. of Scotland, heir also to the English crown (1603). The Scots, enraged by the attempts of Charles I. to impose the Anglican ritual, fought stoutly with the English Parliament against the king, but enthusiastically supported the Restoration. Under Charles II. and James II. the National Church was depressed, and the Covenanters persecuted; and the Revolution was welcomed (1688) by the great bulk of the nation. The crowns had been conjoined by the personal tie of the sovereign in 1603; the kingdoms were united by legislative union in 1707 (the Scottish Church and Scots law being maintained intact), in spite of a good deal of Scottish discontent; and it was mainly the Highlanders who, in 1715 and 1745, rose in defence of the claims of the family of the exiled James II., under the old and the young Pretenders. From this time the history of Scotland may be regarded as merging in that of Britain, though Scotland and England, Scotsmen and Englishmen, are still in many respects very distinguishable. Scotsmen have taken a prominent part in the political and intellectual life of the United Kingdom, and done more than their share in building up the colonial empire of Great Britain.

See P. Hume Brown's Early Travellers in Scotland, 1295-1689 (1891); F. Grose's Antiquities of Scotland (2 vols. 1789-91); Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland (21 vols. 1791-99); Dorothy Wordsworth's Tour in Scotland (ed. by Shairp, 1874); G. Chalmers' Caledonia (3 vols. 1807-24; new ed. Paisley, 7 vols. 1888 et seq.); R. Chambers's Picture of Scotland (2 vols. 1827); the New Statistical Account (15 vols. 1845); Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's Scottish Rivers (ed. by Dr John Brown, 1874); Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland (4 vols. 1848-52); Cosmo Innes' Origines Parochiales Scotiœ (3 vols. 1850-55); Hugh Miller's Cruise of the Betsey (1858); Sir A. Geikie's Scenery of Scotland viewed in connection with its Physical Geology (1865; 2d ed. 1887); Dean Ramsay's Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character (22d ed. 1874); Dr Joseph Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan Times (4 vols. 1881-86); F. H. Groome's Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland (2d ed. 3 vols. 1893-95); C. Rogers' Social Life in Scotland (3 vols. 1884-86); MacGibbon and Ross's Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland (4 vols. 1886-92).