Shadwell, a parish, now included in Tower Hamlets (q.v.).


Shaftesbury (locally Shaston), a very ancient municipal borough in Dorsetshire, 3 miles SSW. of Semley station and 22 WSW. of Salisbury. It stands on a narrow chalk ridge, and commands magnificent views over Dorset-, Somerset-, and Wiltshires. The Caer Palladwr of the Britons, it was made by King Alfred the seat of a famous abbey of Benedictine nuns (880), whither Edward the Martyr's body was translated in 980, and where Canute died in 1035. At the date of Domesday Shaftesbury had three mints and twelve churches, but four remain - St Peter's (Norman) the most interesting. Till 1832 Shaftesbury returned two members, and till 1885 one. Population, 2000. See Mayo's Municipal Records of Shaftesbury (Sherborne, 1S91).


Shahabad', a town of Oudh, 80 miles NW. of Lucknow by rail, with a pop. of 20,153 - only a third of what it was in the 16th century.


Shahjahanpur', a town in the United Provinces, 100 miles by rail NW. of Lucknow. It was founded in 1647, in the reign of Shah-Jehan. It was a hot-bed of rebellion in 1857. Sugar is made and exported. Pop. 76,960.


Shamo, or Gobi. See Asia.


Shamo'kln, a borough of Pennsylvania, 188 miles by rail W. of New York, with rich mines of anthracite coal. Pop. 18,200.


Shandernagar. See Chandernagore.


Shandon, a Dumbartonshire village and large hydropathic, on the E. shore of the Gare Loch, 5 1/2 miles NW. of Helensburgh. See also Cork.

Shandy Hall

Shandy Hall, Sterne's residence (now cottages) at Coxwold (q.v.).


Shanklin, a watering-place on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, 8 miles by rail S. of Ryde. It has memories of Keats. Population, upwards of 4500.


Shan-si, a province of northern China, having the Hoang-ho on its western boundary.

Shan States

Shan States, a collective name for a large area between Burma, Siam, Annam and China, occupied by numerous tribes of Shans or Laos, a people akin to the Siamese and southern Chinese. Some of the tribes are directly dependent on Burma, still more on Siam, and others on China and Annam; many are virtually independent. The country consists of valleys and hill country 20 on the upper courses of the Irawadi, Salwen, Mekong, and their tributaries. There are great forests of teak; iron, rubies, and silver are mined; copper, coal, and petroleum are known to exist; the country has a large trade with China, and schemes for railways from Burma and Siam to the Chinese frontiers have been proposed. The total number of Shans is guessed at 4,000,000. Zimme (Chieng-mai) and Luang-Prabang give name to the chief states - the latter now Annamite or French.


Shan-tung, a maritime province of N. China.


Shap, a Westmorland town, 12 miles SSE. of Penrith. It has a ruined abbey, a mineral spring, and granite-quarries near. Pop. 1260.


Shapinshay, an Orkney island, 4 miles NNE. of Kirkwall. Area, 11 sq. m.; height, 162 feet; pop. 765.