Shanghai (Shang-hi'), the most important seaport for central China, stands on an affluent of the Yang-tsze-kiang, 12 miles from its mouth and 160 SE. of Nanking. The Chinese city, with narrow, filthy streets, is surrounded by a wall, and between it and the river lie densely-crowded suburbs. On the north of the Chinese city the French and English settlements, with broad streets, well lighted, well paved, and handsome houses and public buildings, stretch northwards parallel to the river. The English cathedral was designed by Sir G. G. Scott. Powerful batteries guard the river-approach. The city lies low, and suffers greatly from dysentery, cholera, and fevers during the very hot summers. Shanghai has an enormous trade in tea and silks, and in cottons, woollens, opium, metals, etc. It taps the provinces of middle China by a vast and complicated system of interlacing canals, and so gets the lion's share of the tea and silk to export. The total trade of the port has grown enormously since Shanghai was thrown open to foreign commerce in 1842. A large proportion of the trade of Shanghai is for goods in transit. The imports of greatest value are cotton goods, opium, metals, woollens, coal, kerosene oil, beche de mer, edible birds'-nests, dyes, ginseng, matches, pepper, sandalwood, seaweed, timber, shark's fins, etc. Pop. 450,000 (about 3000 foreigners).