Si'don (Heb. Zidon), anciently a city of Phoenicia, situated on the east coast of the Mediterranean, half-way between Tyre and Beyrout. The present town of Saida, which was stormed by the allies under Napier in 1840, has 10,000 inhabitants, of whom 7000 are Mohammedans.


Sidra, Gulf of. See Syrtis.


Siebenburgen (Zeebenbeer'gen, g hard; ' Seven Castles'), the German name of Transylvania (q.v.).


Siebengebirge (Zeebengebeer'geh, g's hard; 'The Seven Mountains'), in Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the Rhine, 20 miles above Cologne. The highest is the Olberg (1522 feet); but the most famous is the Drachenfels (q.v.). They are crowned with ruins of castles of the 12th century.


Siedlce (Seed'l-tsay), a town of Poland, 57 miles by rail E. by S. of Warsaw. Pop. 25,500. - Area of province, 5535 sq. m.; pop. 775,320.


Siegen (Zee'gen, g hard), a Prussian town of Westphalia, on the Sieg, 47 miles E. of Cologne. It manufactures leather, paper, linen, soap, iron, copper, lead, zinc, etc, having many mines in the vicinity. Rubens was born here. Pop. 22,111.

Sierra Madre

Sierra Madre (See-er'ra Mah'dray, 'Mother Chain'), a general name for the mountains in Mexico that stretch northward from about Guadalajara to Arizona, forming the western wall of the plateau, and separating Chihuahua from the maritime states of Sinaloa and Sonora. - The name has often been extended to include the central and eastern ranges of the Cordilleras.

Sierra Morena

Sierra Morena (See-er'ra Mo-ray'na), a broad mountain-ridge in the south of Spain, forming the southern edge of the great central plain. It separates the basins of the Guadiana and Guadalquivir, and ranges in height from 2000 to 5500 feet. Valuable mines of lead, silver, quicksilver, sulphur, and lignite, as at Tharsis and Rio Tinto, occur.


Sigmaringen (ng as in ring), the capital of Hohenzollern (q.v.), on the Danube, 54 miles S. by E. of Tubingen. Its castle suffered much by fire, 18th April 1893. Pop. 4646.

Sikh States

Sikh States (Seek), in India, are fifteen protected native states of the Punjab (Patiala being the chief), the only existing representatives of the numerous states founded by the warlike and religious sect of the Sikhs, and welded into a powerful confederacy or empire by Ranjit Singh before 1839. The Sikh wars of 1845-46 and 1848-49 led to the annexation of all the Punjab by Britain, except a few small feudatories. The Sikhs amount to 7 per cent. of the population of the Punjab (q.v.), and to 2,200,000 in India.


Si-kiang (See-ki-ang'). See Canton.


Sikkim, a protected state in the north-east of India, bounded N. by Tibet, W. by Nepal, and SE. by Bhotan. Area, 2820 sq. m.; pop. 60,000. The state lies on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, has mountains reaching to 24,000 feet and mountain-passes as high as 16,000. The maharaja, who resides at the village of Tumlong, ceded Darjeeling to the British in 1835, having already acknowledged their ' protection ' in 1816. In 1888 the erection of a fort under Tibetan influence led to a British expedition against Sikkim. - Darjeeling (q.v.) is often called British Sikkim.