Sienna (Ital. Siena; anc. Sœna Julia), a walled city of Italy, 60 miles by rail S. of Florence. The streets are narrow, winding, and steep, with many mediaeval features. The archiepiscopal cathedral, one of the finest examples of Gothic in Italy, was begun early in the 13th century; in 1339 it was intended to build a vastly larger church. But after the plague of 1348 the idea was abandoned, and only ruined walls indicate the ambitious design. The magnificent west front (1284-1357) of three arches is partly Pointed, partly Round-arched, and is enriched with red, white, and black marbles, gilding, and many sculptures. A fire did considerable damage to the exterior in 1890. A lofty square campanile stands on the south side. The art treasures of the interior embrace the wonderful octagonal pulpit by Niccolo Pisano (1268); the marble mosaic floor; the series of frescoes commemorative of the life of Pope Pius II., by Pinturicchio, in the Piccolomini Library; the celebrated font (1428), with bas-reliefs by Donatello, Delia Quercia, and other sculptors, in the church of San Giovanni, situated beneath the cathedral. The churches of Sant' Agostino, the Servites, San Domenico, and some others contain pictures by Sodoma, Matteo di Giovanni, and other Siennese artists. The greatly venerated church of St Catharine (a native of this city) stands on the site of her former dwelling. The municipal palace (1288-1309), a magnificent Pointed Gothic edifice of brick, has a lofty tower (1325), and contains paintings by Siennese artists. There are noble palaces, as the Piccolomini, Tolomei, Monte de' Paschi, Loggia del Papa, some dating from the 13th century. The more noteworthy of the public institutions are the university (1203), with faculties of medicine and law (less than 250 students), the state archives and the town library; and an Institute of Fine Arts (1816), with many fine pictures by masters of the Siennese school. The city has also given birth to a host of other illustrious men, as Aeneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II.), Bernardino Ochino, and the two Socini (founders of Socinianism). In July and August celebrated horse-races are held in the market-place. Pop. 28,700.