Simonoseki. See Shimonoseki.
Simon's Town (pop. 5000), on Simon's Bay. See Cape Colony.
Simplon(Fr. pron. Sangplong; Ital. Sempione), a Swiss mountain-pass (6594 feet high), in the E. of the canton of Valais. The Simplon Road (1800-06; cost, £720,000), one of the greatest engineering achievements of modern times, leads over a shoulder of the mountain from Brieg in Valais to Domo d'Ossola (41 miles) in Piedmont. It is carried across more than 600 bridges, over numerous galleries cut out of the natural rock or built of solid masonry, and through great tunnels. Close to the highest point is the New Hospice (opened in 1825), one of the twenty edifices on this route for the shelter of travellers. In 1898-1906 a new double tunnel (12 1/4 miles in length) was constructed, its Swiss terminus at Brieg and the Italian one at Iselle, costing £2,800,000.
Sinalo'a, a Pacific state of Mexico, with an area of 36,180 sq. m. and a pop. of 300,000. It contains over 100 mining districts, chiefly producing silver. The capital is Culiacan (q.v.); 100 miles NW. is the town of Sinaloa (pop. 2000).
Sinclairtown. See Kirkcaldy.
Singanfoo', the capital of the Chinese province of Shen-hsi, on a tributary of the Hoang-ho. Pop. 1,000,000.
Si-ngan-fu (also spelt Hsi-an-fu, Se-gan, etc.), a very ancient and famous city of China, capital of Shen-si, and in 1120 B.C. capital of the empire. Standing near the Wei, an affluent of the Hoang-ho, it has a large trade and many antiquities, amongst which are a stone with a Syriac inscription recording the establishment of Christianity here in the 7th century. Hither in 1900 the emperor and court fled from Peking.
Singbhum, one of the four districts of the division of Chota Nagpore (q.v.).
Sing Sing, since 1901 called Ossining, in New York, on the left bank of the Hudson (here called Tappan Bay), 31 miles by rail N. of New York City. It contains villas, boarding-schools, and manufactories; but it is best known through its large state-prison (1825). The Croton Aqueduct rests here on an arch of masonry with a span of 88 feet. Pop. 7940.
Sinigaglia (Seenigal'ya; anc. Sena-Gallia), a seaport on the Adriatic coast of Italy, 16 miles by rail NW. of Ancona. It was founded by the Senonian Gauls, and colonised by the Romans 289 b.c. There are a cathedral (1787) and a ducal palace. Pius IX. was a native. Pop. 9602.
Sinope (See-no'peh; Turk. Sinub), a town of Asiatic Turkey, stands on a rock projecting into the Black Sea, 220 miles W. by N. of Trebizond. One of its two harbours is the best on the N. coast of Asia Minor; and it has ancient Byzantine walls and a ruined castle. Pop. 8000.
Sion (See-ong'; Ger. Sitten), capital of the Swiss canton of Valais, in the valley of the Rhone, 16 miles NE. of Martigny by the Simplon Railway. It has three ruined castles perched on the crags above, and a 6th-century cathedral. Pop. 6447.