Smyrna, the most important seaport of Asia Minor, stands at the head of the Gulf of Smyrna, which penetrates 46 miles inland from the Aegean Sea. The city climbs up the slopes and nestles at the foot of a steep hill at the SE. corner of the gulf. The Frankish quarter, which faces the quays (2 miles long) and harbour, is lighted both with gas and the electric light. The drainage is bad; the climate uncertain, but intensely hot in summer; and there were great earthquakes in 178 a.d., 1688, 1768, and 1880. Traces of the ancient walls, the stadium, theatre, and some temples can still be discerned. Smyrna is the seat of Roman Catholic, Greek, and Armenian archbishops. Carpets are manufactured, as well as pottery, cottons, and woollens. Two lines of railway run 300 and 170 miles eastwards up the MAeanderand Hermus valleys; and iron-foundries and machine-shops have been established. About 700 b.c. Smyrna was one of the principal trading-centres for Asia Minor; and now it has as a seaport the lion's share of the Asia Minor trade with Europe. The harbour is large, safe, and easily accessible, but is in imminent danger of silting up. The principal exports are raisins, valonia, figs, and opium, besides barley, carpets, sponges, liquorice, wool, olive-oil, tobacco, etc. The imports are textiles, timber, and iron and hardware, besides groceries, railway plant, leather, butter, glass, petroleum, coal, cheese, matches, paper, etc. Estimated population, 250,000, of whom 130,000 are Greeks (more than the pop. of Athens), 23,000 Jews, 12,000 Armenians, 12,700 Europeans, and the rest Turks. Smyrna was originally a city of Greek Aeolic immigrants, but before 688 b.c. had become Ionian. It was finally captured by the Turks under Murad II. in 1424. See a work by Rougon (Paris, 1892).