Springfield. See Gretna.


Springfield, (1) the capital of Illinois, 185 miles by rail SW. of Chicago, at the meeting-point of seven railways. It possesses a handsome federal building, a state arsenal, two colleges, and one of the largest state capitols in the Union (of marble, 385 feet long by 296 wide; cost $5,000,000). It has coal-mines, iron-rolling mills and foundries, a watch-factory, and flour, woollen, paper, and planing mills. Springfield, which became the capital in 1837, was the home of Abraham Lincoln, who is buried in the beautiful Oak Ridge cemetery, in the crypt of a granite obelisk (1874), which cost $264,000. Pop. (1880) 19,746; (1900) 34,160. - (2) A thriving city of Massachusetts, capital of Hampden county, on the Connecticut River's left bank, 99 miles by rail W. by S. of Boston and 25 N. of Hartford. The river is crossed by five bridges to West Springfield (pop. 5075), and four railways meet here. The public buildings include a cathedral, city hall, granite court-house, and a railway station which cost $700,000. Among the factories are the U. S. Armoury (since 1794), foundries, car-works, and manufactories of cottons and woollens, paper, machinery, furniture, trunks, buttons, needles, spectacles, locks, pistols, skates, picture-frames, organs, and jewellery. The town was settled in 1635. Pop. (1880) 33,340; (1900) 62.060. - (3) Capital of Greene county, Missouri, 232 miles by rail WSW. of St Louis, with machine-shops, car-works, and large cotton and woollen factories. Here is Drury College (Congregational; 1873). Near Springfield was fought the battle of Wilson's Creek, 10th August 1861. Pop (1880), 6522; (1900) 23,267 - (4) Capital of Clark county, Ohio, on Lagonda Creek and Mad River, SO miles by rail NE. of Cincinnati. Six railways meet here. The city contains the Wittenberg College (Lutheran; 1845), and handsome county and municipal buildings. It manufactures farm machinery, bicycles, sewing-machines, iron fences, paper, etc. Pop. (1880) 20,730; (1900) 38,253.