Spurn Head

Spurn Head, a promontory stretching 2 1/2 miles into the mouth of the Humber (q.v.), and forming the south-eastern extremity of Yorkshire. It has two lighthouses. Between 1771, when Smeaton's small lighthouse was built, and 1863 the sea gained 280 yards here, but since the erection of groynes in 1864 the land has gained. See Boyle's Lost Towns of the Humber (1889).


Squillace (Skwillah'tchay), a small cathedral town (pop. 2700) of Calabria, on the site of the anc. Scylacium, 12 miles SW. of Catanzaro by rail, and 3 miles inland from the Gulf of Squillace.


Srinagar (Sreenagur'), or Cashmere, the capital of the native state of Cashmere (q.v.) in Northern India, stands in a lovely valley of the Himalayas on the Jhelum, at an elevation of 5276 feet. Pop. (1901)122,618.


Srirangam. See Seringham.


Srivillipatur, a town in the NW. of Tinnevelli district, in South India. Pop. 26,400.

Staaten Island

Staaten Island. See Staten Island.


Stade (Shtah'deh), an ancient town of Hanover, 22 miles W. by N. of Hamburg. Pop. 10,580.


Staffa (Scand., 'pillar-island'), a celebrated islet on the west of Scotland, lies 4 miles SW. of Ulva, 6 N. by E. of Iona, and 54 W. of Oban. It forms an oval uneven tableland, rising at its highest to 144 feet above the water, 1 1/2 mile in circumference, and 71 acres in area. In the north-east is a landing-place; but elsewhere the coast is girt with cliffs 84 to 112 feet high. The most remarkable feature of the island is Fingal's or the Great Cave, the entrance to which is formed by columnar basaltic ranges, supporting a lofty arch. The entrance is 42 feet wide, and 66 feet high, and the length of the cave is 227 feet. The floor of this marvellous chamber is the sea. First described (in Pennant's Tour) by Sir Joseph Banks, after a visit in 1772, Staffa has since been frequently visited - among others by Wordsworth, Keats, Scott, Mendelssohn, Tennyson, and, on 19th August 1847, Queen Victoria.


Staines, a picturesque town of Middlesex, on the left bank of the Thames, 6 miles SE. of Windsor and 19 WSW. of London (35 1/2 by river). Named from the 'London Stone' (1280) at the county boundary, Staines has vast water-works, and a granite bridge by Rennie (1832); and near it are Runnimede, Egham, and Cooper's Hill. Pop. (1851) 2430; (1901) 6688.


Stair, an Ayrshire parish, 6 1/2 miles ENE. of Ayr, gives the title of Earl to the Dalrymples.


Staithes, a Yorkshire coast-village, 10 miles NW. of Whitby. Captain Cook lived here as a boy.


Stalbridge, a Dorset town, 6 miles E. by N. of Sherborne. Pop. 1705.


Stalybridge, a cotton town of Cheshire, occupying a hilly site on both banks of the Tame, 7 1/2 miles E. by N. of Manchester. Dating only from 1776, it has huge factories for the spinning of cotton yarns and calico-weaving, iron-foundries, and machine-shops, a town-hall (1831), market-buildings (1867), a mechanics' institute (1861), an Oddfellows' hall (1878), and, between it and Ashton-under-Lyne to the west, the Stamford Park (1873). It was made a municipal borough in 1857, a parliamentary borough (partly in Lancashire) in 1867. Pop. of the former (1851) 20,760; (1901) 27,674; of the latter (1901) 46,558.