St Andrews, a city of Fife, stands on a rocky plateau at the edge of St Andrews Bay, 42 miles NNE. of Edinburgh. The monkish legend, long discredited, assigned its ecclesiastical origin to St Regulus or Rule, who, warned in a dream, brought certain bones of St Andrew from Patras in the 4th century, and was wrecked at Muckros, afterwards called Kilrimont, now St Andrews. There is, however, reason for believing not only that those relics were brought in the 8th century, but that, before the end of the 6th, Cainnech or Kenneth, the patron saint of Kilkenny, had founded a monastery at Rig-Monadh, the Royal Mount, and that thus arose the name of Kilrimont. Early in the 10th century it seemingly became the seat of the 'Ardepscop Albain,' the high bishop of the Scots - archbishop from 1471-72. The Augustinian Priory, founded in 1144, was the richest and greatest of all the religious houses of Scotland. The Cathedral, founded in or about 1160 in presence of Malcolm IV., and consecrated in 1318 in presence of Robert the Bruce, was stripped of its images and ornaments in 1559, and afterwards fell into ruin. The extreme length inside is 355 feet. The Bishop's Palace or Castle, first built in 1200, was frequently demolished and rebuilt, and is now a ruin. George Wishart was confined in its ' bottle-dungeon,' and Cardinal Beaton slain within its massive walls. None of the ruins is less imposing or more interesting than the foundations on the Kirkhill - the site of the Celtic church. St Rule's Tower, 108 feet high, is Romanesque, probably of the 10th century. The schools of St Andrews were noted in 1120; but the University, the first in Scotland, dates only from 1411. St Salvator's College was founded in 1455, St Leonard's in 1512, and St Mary's in 1537. The two first were united in 1747. The average attendance of students is under 300. The library contains over 100,000 volumes, and there is a good museum. The parish church of St Leonard's is roofless, and the congregation worships in the beautiful chapel of St Salvator's. The Madras College (1832) was endowed by Dr Andrew Bell. There is also a large girls' school (St Leonard's). The town was made a free burgh between 1144 and 1153; the St Andrews Burghs, returning one member, are St Andrews, the two Anstruthers, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem. The manufacture of golf-clubs and balls is a thriving industry, St Andrews, with its fine links, being the Mecca of golfers. Pop. (1801) 3263; (1901) 7621. See works by Martine (1787-97), Grierson (1807), Lyon (1843), Rogers (1849), Anderson (1878), Andrew Lang (1894), and Hay Fleming (1894).