Stafford, the county town of Staffordshire, on the left bank of the Sow, 3 miles above its junction with the Trent, and 25 miles SSE. of Crewe, 29 NNW. of Birmingham, and 133 NW. of London. St Mary's Church, formerly collegiate, is a good cruciform structure, with an octagonal tower. Transition Norman to Decorated in style, it was restored by Scott in 1844-47 at a cost of £30,000, and in 1878 received a bust of Stafford's chief worthy, Izaak Walton, who was baptised in its font. St Chad's, Norman, was very thoroughly restored during 1855-85; and there are also King Edward's grammar-school (1550; rebuilt 18(52), the town-hall (1798), a free library (1882), the William Salt Library (1874), the Clement Wragge Museum, the infirmary (1706), the county lunatic asylum (1818), etc. Stafford Castle, finely situated on an eminence outside the town, which commands a magnificent view, is an unfinished castellated pile. It was built by Sir G. Jerning-ham in 1810-15, successor to a Saxon fortress of the Princess Ethelfleda, and to a later Norman stronghold, which was finally taken by the parliamentarians in 1(543, and demolished. Boot and shoe making is the staple industry, and Stafford is an important railway centre. Chartered by King John, it returned two members from Edward I.'s reign till 1885, when the representation was reduced to one and the parliamentary boundary extended. Pop. (1851) 11,829; (1871) 14,437; (1901) 20,894. See works by Masfen (1852) and Cherry (1890).