Stockholm (l pronounced), the capital of Sweden, stands on several islands and the adjacent mainland, between a bay of the Baltic and Lake Malar, in a situation that is accounted one of the most picturesque in Europe. Its nucleus is an island in mid-channel called 'the Town;' on it stand the imposing royal palace (1697-1754); the chief church (St Nicholas), in which the kings are crowned; the House of the Nobles (1648-70); the town-house; the ministries of the kingdom; and the principal wharf, a magnificent granite quay, fronting east. Immediately W. of the central island lies the Knights' Island (Riddar-holm); it is almost entirely occupied with public buildings, as the Houses of Parliament; the old Franciscan church, in which all the later sovereigns of Sweden have been buried; the royal archives; and the chief law-courts. N. of these two islands lie the handsomely built districts of Nornnalm, separated from them by a narrow channel, in which is an islet with the royal stables. In Norrmalm are the National Museum (1850-65), with valuable prehistoric collections, coins, paintings, sculptures; the principal theatres; the Academy of Fine Arts (1735); the barracks; the Hop Garden, with the Royal Library (1870-76), 250,000 vols. and 8000 MSS., and with the statue (1885) of LinnAeus; the Academy of Sciences (1739); the Museum of Northern Antiquities (1873); the Observatory, etc. Ship Island (Skeppsholm), immediately east of 'the Town ' island, is the headquarters of the Swedish navy, and is connected with a smaller island on the south-east, that is crowned with a citadel. Beyond these again, and farther to the east, lies the beautiful island of the Zoological Gardens. Immediately south of ' the Town' island is the extensive district of Sodermalm, the houses of which climb up the steep slopes that rise from the water's edge. Handsome bridges connect the central islands with the northern and southern districts; quick little steamboats go to the beautiful islands in Lake Malar on the west, and eastward towards the Baltic Sea (40 miles distant). Sugar, tobacco, silks and ribbons, candles, linen, cotton, and leather are produced, and there are large iron-foundries and machine-shops. Though the water approaches are frozen up during winter, Stockholm imports wheat and rye, rice, flour, herrings, oils and oilcake, wine and spirits, etc, and exports iron and steel, oats, and tar. Stockholm was founded by Birger Jarl in 1255, and grew to be the capital only in modern times. Pop. (1800) 75,500; (1850) 93,000; (1878) 156,677; (1900) 300,624. The principal events in the history of the city have been the sieges by Queen Margaret of Denmark (1389), battles in the vicinity against the Danes, the capture of the place by Christian IT. of Denmark in 1520, and his 'Blood Bath' of nobles and chief citizens.