Stockton-on-Tees, an important municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport in Durham, situate on the north side of the Tees, 4 miles from its mouth and 11 ENE. of Darlington, 4 WSW. of Middlesborough, and 236 NNW. of London. The broad and handsome High Street is nearly a mile in length; and a new town, South Stockton or Thornaby-on-Tees (q.v.), included within the parliamentary boundary, in Yorkshire, has sprung up on the south bank of the river, the two being connected by an iron bridge of three arches (1887), which superseded a five-arch stone bridge of 1771, and cost over £80,000. The town has six churches, a Roman Catholic chapel (1842-70) by the elder Pugin, a town-hall, borough-hall (1852), an exchange, a theatre, large recreation grounds, and a public park opened by the Duke of York in October 1893. The Stockton Races, of some mark in the sporting world, are held annually in August. Shipbuilding, chiefly in iron and steel, is busily carried on; and blastfurnaces, foundries, engine-works, and extensive potteries and ironworks are in operation. Sailcloth, ropes, linen, and diapers were at one time the staple industry; but their manufacture has been discontinued; and there are breweries, corn-mills, and spinning-mills. The exports are chiefly iron and earthenware; the imports corn, timber in deals, spars, etc, and bark. At Stockton the Tees is navigable for vessels of large tonnage; the navigation of the river has been much improved. Pop. of the municipal borough (1891) 49,708; (1901) 51,476; of parliamentary borough, including Thornaby, (1901) 71,815. Stockton suffered severely from the incursions of the Scots in the early part of the 14th century. Its moated castle was taken for the Parliament in 1644, and 'slighted and dismantled' in 1652, almost the last vestige being removed in 1865. At the Restoration it had only 120 houses, mostly built of clay. Since 1867 it sends one member to parliament. Ritson was a native. See Darlington, and works by J. Brewster (1829), H. Heavisides (1865), and T. Richmond (1868).