Stuttgart (Shtoot'gart), the capital of Wurtem-berg, stands in a natural basin (817 feet above sea-level) surrounded by hills, which are studded with villas, vineyards, and gardens, and crowned with woods, 2 miles from the Neckar, and 189 by rail WNW. of Munich, 127 SSE. of Frankfort. Except the churches, most of the public edifices date from the 19th century, and are chiefly built in the Renaissance style. On or near the central Palace Square stand the new royal palace (1746-1807), the old royal castle (16th century), two or three other palaces of the royal family, the Konigsbau (shops, bourse, concert-rooms, &c), the theatre, the railway station (one of the finest in all Germany), the post-office, the Akademie (formerly the Carl School; now library and guardhouse), the jubilee column (1841), and statues of Schiller and Duke Eberhard. The Collegiate Church, St Leonard's, and the Hospital Church date from the 15th century. The other chief public institutions of Stuttgart are its famous Polytechnic (with 250 students), the Conservatory of Music, the royal library (425,000 vols.), the museum and picture-gallery, etc. Stuttgart is a great centre of the German book-trade, manufactures textiles, beer, pianofortes, chemicals, chocolate, etc., and has celebrated fairs. NE. of the palace lies the picturesque royal park (with some good statuary), extending almost all the way to Cannstatt (q.v.). There are many royal seats in the vicinity. Hegel and Hauff were natives. Pop. (1875)107,573; (1900)176,699. Stuttgart owes its name and origin to a stud-farm of the early Counts of Wurtemberg, and has been the capital since 1482.