Surat', a city of India, on the S. bank of the Tapti (crossed by a five-girder bridge), 14 miles from its mouth, and 160 by rail N. of Bombay. It stretches in a semicircle for more than a mile along the river, the quondam citadel (1540; government offices since 1862) forming the central feature. The chief buildings are four handsome mosques, two Parsee fire-temples, three Hindu temples, the old English and Dutch factories, and a clock-tower (SO feet high). The existing city in 1512, soon after its foundation, was burned by the Portuguese, as again in 1530 and 1531. In 1612 the English established themselves there, and shortly after they were followed by the Dutch. Surat then traded with Europe, Arabia, Persia, Ceylon, the East Indies, etc, and silk, cotton, and indigo were the most valuable exports. Here the Mohammedan pilgrims of India were wont to embark for Mecca. Shortly after 1650 the Mahrattas began to harass the city, and towards the end of the 17th century the commerce of Surat began to decline, Bombay gradually taking its place. The place came under British rule entirely in 1800, and for a time it had a revival of its old prosperity. But in 1837 it was almost wholly ruined by a disastrous fire followed by a great flood. It flourished once more during the American civil war, its chief export being cotton. Pop. (1811) 250,000; (1847) 80,000; (1881) 109,840; (1901) 119,306.