Sussex, a maritime county in the south of England, washed on the SE. and S. for 91 miles by the English Channel, and elsewhere bounded by Hampshire, Surrey, and Kent. It has an extreme length from E. to W. of 76 miles, an extreme width of 27, and an area of 1464 sq. m., or 936,911 acres. From the Hampshire border, near Petersfield, to Beachy Head (q.v., 575 feet) the county is traversed by the chalky South Downs, whose highest point is Ditchling Beacon (858 feet), and whose northern escarpment is steep, but leads down to the fertile and richly wooded Weald. Beyond this again, in the northeast, is the Forest Ridge (804 feet). A very productive tract, 2 to 7 miles broad, extends westward from Brighton along the coast to the Hamp-shire boundary; in the south-east are rich marshlands, affording excellent pasture. The chief streams, all unimportant, are the Arun, Adur, Ouse, and Rother. Rather more than two-thirds of the entire area is in cultivation; and 177 sq. m. (second only to Yorkshire) are occupied by woods - in the Weald, St Leonards and Ashdown Forests, etc. The Downs (q.v.) are clothed with a short, fine, and delicate turf; and here and elsewhere more than half a million of the well-known Southdown sheep are grazed, the livestock also including some 25,000 horses and 113,000 cattle. Sussex was once the chief seat of the iron trade, when wood was used for smelting, and its last furnace was not blown out till 1809; to-day the manufactures are unimportant. The county, which contains six 'rapes,' 68 hundreds, and 317 parishes, has since 1885 returned six members to parliament. Brighton and Hastings are parliamentary and Arundel, Chichester, Eastbourne, Lewes, Rye, Worthing, and Bexhill municipal boroughs; whilst Newhaven, Seaford, Littlehampton, and Bognor also deserve men-tion. Pop. (1841) 300,075; (1901) 605,052. Sussex contains the landing-place of CAesar (55 B.C.); of Aella (477 a.d.), from whose subjects, the South Saxons, the county derived its name; and of William the Conqueror (1066) at Pevensey, as well as the battlefields of Hastings and Lewes. The antiquities include a British camp at Cissbnry, Roman remains at Pevensey and Bognor, Chichester cathedral (12th century), a dozen mediAeval castles (Arundel, Bodiam, Hurstmonceaux, Hastings, Bramber, &c), and nine or ten religious houses (Lewes, Battle, &c). Cobden, Collins, Fletcher, Otway, Sackville, Selden, and Shelley have been among the eminent natives; and Sussex also has memories of Chillingworth, Lyell, Archdeacon Hare, John Sterling, Cardinal Manning, Titus Oates, and Lord Tennyson.
See works by T. W. Horsfield (1835), Lower (3 vols. 1865-70), Parish (1886), G. F. Chambers (3d ed. 1S91), A. Hare (1894), and E. V. Lucas (Highways and Byways in Sussex, 1904).