Sutherland, a maritime county in the extreme north of Scotland, is bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic, E. by Caithness, SE. by the North Sea, and S. by the Dornoch Firth and by Ross and Cromarty. Measuring 63 by 59 miles, it has an area of 2126 sq. m., or 1,360,459 acres, of which 47,633 are water and 12,812 foreshore. The Atlantic coasts, deeply indented by sea-lochs, are bold and rock-bound, in Cape Wrath (q.v.) attaining 523 feet; the south-eastern seaboard is comparatively flat. On the Caithness boundary rise the Hill of Ord (1324 feet) and Cnoc an Eirean-naich (1698); but the mountains of Sutherland are all in the west - Benmore Assynt (3273), Coni-veall (3234), Ben Clibrick (3154), Ben Hope (3040), Foinaven (2980), Canisp (2779), and Suilven or the Sugar-loaf (2399). The Oykell, tracing the Ross-shire boundary, and falling into the Dornoch Firth, is the longest stream (35 miles); and of over 300 lochs and tarns the largest are Lochs Shin (16 x 1 1/2 miles) and Assynt (q.v., 6 3/4 x 3/4). Coal has been mined at Brora off and on since 1573; and gold at Kildonan (q.v.). The total percentage of cultivated area is only 2.9, in spite of costly reclamations carried on by the third Duke of Sutherland (1828-92), by far the largest proprietor - so costly indeed that during 1853-82 the expenditure on his estates exceeded the income derived from them by nearly a quarter of a million sterling. The live-stock includes over 10,000 cattle and 200,000 sheep; and the deer-forests, grouse-moors, and fishings (especially good for trout) attract many sportsmen. The climate varies much, like the rainfall, which increases westward from 32 to 60 inches. Sutherland returns one member; its county town is Dornoch (q.v.). Pop. (1801) 23,117; (1851) 25,793; (1881) 23,370; (1901) 21,440. The Northmen, who down to the 12th c. often descended on Sutherland and pillaged it, called it the 'southern land,' as lying to the south of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. The ' Sutherland Clearances,' by which many small tenants were removed, took place in 1810-20. See works by Sir Robert Gordon (1813), Bishop Pococke (1888), St John (2 vols. 1849; new ed. 1884), A. Young (1880), A. Mackenzie (1883), and Edwards-Moss (1888).