Tanganyika (Tang-gan-yee'ka), a lake of Eastern Africa, between 3° and 9° S. lat., and on 30° E. long.; length, 420 miles (nearly a fifth longer than Lake Michigan); breadth, 15 to 80 miles; height above sea, 2700 feet. It was discovered by Speke and Burton in 1858, and explored by Livingstone, Stanley, Cameron, Thomson, Hore, etc. Formerly supposed to belong to the Nile basin, it really sends its surplus waters by the Lukuga outlet westward to the Congo in periods when its level is high. Except when several rainy seasons follow one another, the great evaporation keeps the water about the same level. The water is fresh and wholesome, the climate not unhealthy. Mountains, some of them 10,000 feet high, surround the lake, which lies in a trough that seems to indicate a former connection with the Red Sea. Some 600 miles from the coast, it divides the Congo Free State from German East Africa, touches Northern Rhodesia on the south, and is on the line of the Cape-to-Cairo railway. For physical features, see J. E. S. Moore, The Tanganyika Problem.