Teheran', or Tehran, capital of Persia, 70 miles S. of the Caspian Sea. It stands on a wide plain, with Mount Demavend (q.v.) to the N. The old wall and ditch (4 miles long) were levelled in 1868, and the space thus gained made into a circular boulevard. New fortifications, 10 miles in circumference, were completed in 1873. The town rapidly extended, especially on the north side, where many fine streets, gardens, and buildings soon made their appearance, among them the British Legation. The Shah's palace, reconstructed since 1866, occupies the Citadel, its large court-yards laid out with gardens and fountains. The Shah has five other palaces in the neighbourhood. The bazaars, some of them very handsome structures, are filled with every kind of merchandise. Lines of telegraph radiate in all directions; and in 1886 a railway was constructed to Shah Abdul Azim, a place of pilgrimage 6 miles S. Tramways were also laid down, and gas introduced in 1892. Pop. (1860) 70,000; (1900) 230,000, the Europeans having likewise increased from 30 to 1000. Near Teheran are the ruins of Rei, the Rhages of the Book of Tobit, and Ragœ of Alexander the Great's time, Harun-al-Raschid's birthplace.