Tipperary, an inland county of Munster, touching Galway on the north and King's County, Queen's County, and Kilkenny on the east. Area, 1659 sq. m., or 1,061,731 acres, of which 843,837 are arable. The county lies mainly in the basin of the Suir (total length 85 miles); the Shannon touches the north-west border. The surface is generally level, but is diversified by the Galtees (3008 feet), Knockmeledown (2609), and Slievena-man on the S., Keeper Mountain on the W., and the Slievardagh Hills on the E. To the isolated Devil's Bit many popular legends attach. The soil of the plain is a rich calcareous loam, singularly fertile and productive, especially the Golden Vale, in which stands Tipperary town. Anthracite coal is worked; and copper, lead, zinc, slates, and pipe-clay also occur. The chief occupation is agriculture, especially dairy-farming. The county, which since 1885 returns four members, is divided into two ridings, North and South, each subdivided into six baronies. Pop. (1841) 435,553; (1901) 160,232 - 150,332 Catholics. Anciently Tipperary formed part of the two principalities of Ormond, or North Munster, and Desmond, or South Munster; after the English invasion it was formed into a county by King John in 1210. Eventually it came to be divided between two Anglo-Norman families, the Butlers holding Ormond, and the Geraldines part of Desmond. The antiquities are numerous, as well Celtic as Anglo-Norman. In the latter the city of Cashel (q.v.) is specially rich; Holy Cross is a noble monastic ruin; the castle of Cahir is a fine specimen of baronial architecture. There is a series of caves near the Cork border.
Tipperary, the county town, is 110 miles SW. of Dublin by rail, with a Catholic and a Protestant church, and a noted butter-market; pop. 6250. Under the 'Plan of Campaign,' a 'New Tipperary ' was opened on 12th April 1890; but the scheme collapsed in the following year.