Toledo (Tolay'do), a famous city of Spain, capital of a province, and long the capital of the whole country, stands on the north bank of the Tagus, 40 miles SSW. of Madrid by rail. It is situated on a number of hills, 2400 feet above sea-level; and the climate, excessively hot in summer, is bitterly cold in winter. The Tagus, flowing between high and rocky banks, leaves only one approach on the N., which is defended by an inner and an outer wall, the former built by the Gothic king Wamba in the 7th c, the latter in 1109, and both remarkable for their towers and gates. Seen from afar the city is most imposing; within it is gloomy, silent, inert. In its midst rises the lofty, massive, five-aisled cathedral, built in 1227-1493 on the site of a former mosque. The interior, which is more impressive than the exterior, was plundered in 1621 and 1808, but retains some admirable stained glass, and the choir is a perfect museum of sculpture. It is 404 feet long and 204 wide; the tower is 329 feet high. The great square or Zocodover, thoroughly Moorish in character, is a fashionable promenade. The Alcazar or old palace, the fortress commanded by the Cid, rebuilt as a palace in Charles V.'s time, and subsequently, occupied the highest part of the city, but was burned down in 1887. There are manufactures of church ornaments and vestments, and confections. Toledan sword-blades, famous since old Roman times, are still made, but outside the city. Pop. 23,470. Toledo, the Toletum of the Romans, and the capital of the Goths, was held by the Moors from 714 to 1085, when it was annexed to the crown of Castile as capital. In its highest prosperity it had 200,000 inhabitants. It was the headquarters of the Inquisition. The university (1498) is long since .extinct. - Area of province, 5586 sq. m.; pop. 376,820.
Toledo (To-le'do), capital of Lucas county, Ohio, on the Maumee River, 8 miles from the western extremity of Lake Erie(to which a channel 17 feet deep has been dredged), and 92 by rail W. of Cleveland. It has a fine harbour, is on the Miami and Erie Canal, and is connected with all parts of the country by thirteen railways. Besides an immense union depot, it has huge grain elevators, and does a great trade in flour, grain, lumber, live-stock, tobacco, etc. There are great wagon-works, foundries, manufactories of boilers, pumps, engines, farming implements, and furniture, and boat-yards and bridge-works. Toledo was settled in 1832, and incorporated in 1836. Pop. (1880) 50,137; (1890) 81,434; (1900) 131,222.