Tonsberg, an old Norwegian seaport, 71 miles SW. of Christiania by rail. Pop. 8650.


Toombudra (correctly, Tungabhadra) rises in the south-west of Mysore, and flows 400 miles NE. to the Kistnah, 16 miles below Karnul.


Tooting, a Surrey district of Wandsworth.


Toowoomba, a town of Queensland, on the Darling Downs, 70 miles W. of Brisbane. Pop. 10,100.


Tope'ka, the capital of Kansas, on the Kansas River, 67 miles W. of Kansas City. It is well built, with wide, shady streets, and possesses a handsome capitol, a Congregational college, a R. C. seminary, an asylum, etc. It is the see of an Anglican bishop. Founded in 1854, it became the state capital in 1861, and has now busy miscellaneous manufactures and industries. Pop. (1880) 15,452; (1900) 33,60S.


Tophane (Top-hah'neh). See Constantinople.


Toplitz. See Teplitz.


Topsham, a Devon market-town, on the Exe, 4 miles SSE. of Exeter. Pop. of parish, 2790.

Tor Bay

Tor Bay. See Torquay.


Torgau (au as ow), a town of Prussia, and a fortress of the second rank, stands on the Elbe's left bank, 70 miles SSW. of Berlin by rail. The castle, now barracks, contains a church consecrated by Luther in 1544; the town-church has pictures by Cranach and the grave of Luther's wife. Here in 1760 Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians. Pop. 11,988.


Tornea, a town in the Finnish government of Uleaborg, at the mouth of the Tornea River, which, rising in the Tornea lake, forms during great part of its course of 250 miles the boundary between Sweden and Finland. Pop. 1400; across the river is the Swedish town of Haparanda.


Toro, a town of Spain, on the right bank of the Douro, 20 miles E. of Zamora by rail. Pop. 8764.


Toronto!, the Hungarian county on the Maros and Theiss, with Becskerek (q.v.) for capital.


Torphichen (Tor-phihh'en), a Linlithgowshire parish, 2 miles N. of Bathgate, was the chief Scottish seat of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem.

Torre dell Annunziata

Torre dell' Annunziata (Torr-reh del Annoon'-tseeah'ta), a town of Italy, on the S. base of Vesuvius, 13 miles SE. of Naples by rail. Pop. 20,060. - Torre del Greco, also at the base of Vesuvius, only 7 miles from Naples by rail, has been repeatedly destroyed by eruptions. Pop. 21,588.


Torrens, Lake, sometimes a brackish lake (130 by 20 miles), at others merely a vast salt-marsh, in South Australia, 90 miles N. of Spencer's Gulf. It is named after Sir R. R. Torrens (1814-84).

Torre Pellice

Torre Pellice (Torreh Pellee'chay; Fr. La Tour), a Piedmontese village (pop. 2840), 34 miles SW. of Turin by rail. It is the headquarters of the Waldenses.

Torres Strait

Tor'res Strait, between N. Australia and New Guinea, is 80 to 90 miles in width; its navigation is rendered dangerous by innumerable shoals, reefs, and islands. It was discovered in 160(3 by Torres, a Spanish navigator.


Torres-Vedras (Tor'rez-Vay'dras), a Portuguese town, 20 miles N. of Lisbon by rail. Within its famous 'lines' Wellington defended himself the winter of 1810-11 against Massena. Pop. 6926.