Toulouse (Toolooce'), a southern French city, anciently capital of Languedoc, and now of the dep. Haute-Garonne, 160 miles SE. of Bordeaux and 466 S. by W. of Paris. With the Canal du Midi on the E. and N., it lies on the right bank of the Garonne, which is crossed here by a beautiful bridge (1543-1626), nearly 300 yards long, leading to the suburb of St Cyprien. The city has few fine public buildings - the archi-episcopal cathedral, containing the tombs of the Counts of Toulouse; the Capitole, or town-hall (1769); the church of St Sernin (11th to 15th c); and the Musee, with interesting antiquities. Toulouse has a university academy, an academy of 'floral games,' claiming to date from a troubadours' contest in 1323, academies of arts, sciences, etc, schools of law, medicine, and artillery, an observatory, botanic garden, and a public library of 60,000 volumes. The place manufactures woollens, silks, leather, cannon, steam-engines, tobacco, brandy, etc., and carries on a great trade with Spain. Its liver and truffle pies are celebrated. Pop. (1872) 114,025; (1901) 140,698. The Tolosa of the Romans, Toulouse in 412 a.d. became the Visigoths' capital. After Charlemagne's time it was under counts, who made themselves independent about 920, but in 1271 it was reunited to the crown of France. Its literary celebrity reaches back to the Roman empire; early in the middle ages it became a seat of Provencal poetry, but it suffered terribly in Simon de Montfort's pitiless crusade against the Albigenses. On 10th April 1814 the French were here defeated by Wellington. Cujacius was born, and Fermat died, at Toulouse. The floods of 1855 and 1875 were specially disastrous.