Tours (Toore), capital of the dep. Indre-et-Loire, as it formerly was of the province of Touraine, stands in the fertile valley of the Loire just above the Cher's influx, 147 miles SW. of Paris by rail. It is a regularly built and handsome town, nearly divided in half by the Rue Nationale. The noble cathedral (13th to 15th c.) has very fine glass and two towers 205 feet high. Other buildings are the church of St Julien, the towers and other remains of the famous abbey church of St Martin (destroyed at the Revolution), the archbishop's palace, palais de justice, museum, public library, etc, besides fine statues of Descartes and Rabelais. Near the town are the remains of the monastery of Marmoutier, and of the castle of Plessis les Tours, the favourite residence of Louis XI. There are some well-preserved ancient houses, including that of the executioner Tristan l'Hermite; and round Tours are many of the fine old chateaux for which Touraine is famous. Tours has a brisk trade, manufactures woollens and silk, does much printing, etc, and is famous for its plums and confections. Pop. (1872) 43,368; (1901) 58,409. The Roman Cœ;sarodunum, Tours was the capital of the Turones (whence the modern name). Near it Charles Martel won the great victory that saved northern Europe from the Saracens (732). The great silk manufactures of Tours, established in the 15th c, were destroyed by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). During the Franco-German war Tours was the seat of government from 11th Sept. to 10th Dec. 1870. SS. Martin and Gregory both were bishops of Tours.