Tullow, a market-town, 9 miles SE. of Carlow. Pop. 1723.


Tummel. See Rannoch.


Tunbrldge, or Tonbridge, a market-town of Kent, 29 1/2 miles SE. of London, stands on the Medway, which here divides into six streams, one of them called the Tun. A castle, originally Norman, but largely rebuilt in 1280-1300, and held successively by Fitz-Gilberts, De Clares, Audleys, and Staffords, retains a fine Decorated gatehouse. The parish church, also Decorated, was almost rebuilt in 1878; and the grammar-school, founded in 1553 by Lord Mayor Sir Andrew Judd, occupies handsome new buildings of 1865. Remodelled in 1880, it has 5500 a year, and over 300 boys; Sir Sidney Smith was an alumnus. The manufacture of toys, boxes, etc, in 'Tunbridge ware' (wood mosaic in veneer) is a specialty. Pop. (1861) 5919; (1901) 12,736. See works by Fleming (1865) and, on the school, by Rivington (1869) and Hughes-Hughes (1893).

Tunbridge Wells

Tunbridge Wells, a charming inland watering-place, on the border of Kent and Sussex, 5 miles S. of Tunbridge, and 34 1/2 SSE. of London. It occupies the head and slopes of one of the valleys of the Weald, and has in general a southwest aspect, commanding very fine views. The chalybeate waters, at the end of the 'Pantiles' parade, were discovered by Lord North in 1606, and have been patromsed by Henrietta Maria, Catharine of Braganza, Evelyn, Queen Anne, 'Beau' Nash, Richard Cumberland, Dr Johnson, Richardson, Garrick, Chatham, and Queen Victoria. There are a breezy common of 170 acres, a church (16S5) in two counties and three parishes, a public hall (1870), a new pump-room (1877), a friendly societies' hall (1878), and a considerable trade in 'Tunbridge ware.' The season lasts from July to September. Tunbridge Wells was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1889. Pop. (1851) 10,587; (1901) 33,38S. See Thackeray's Virginians, and Martin and Row's guide (1906).


Tundras. See Siberia.


Tunguska, a tributary of the Yenisei (q.v.).


Tunstall, a market-town of Staffordshire, 4 1/2 miles NNE. (and since 1885 within the parlia-mentary borough) of Newcastle-under-Lyme. It has a town-hall (1884), manufactures of earthenware and iron, and neighbouring collieries. Pop. (1811) 1677; (1851) 9666; (1901) 19,492.


Turfan (Toor'fan), a city in the east of Eastern Turkestan (part of which is sometimes named after it), on the S. slope of the Tian-shan Mountains and on a tributary of the Tarim. Pop. 30,000.


Turkmanshai (Toork'man-shi), a village of Azerbijan, 65 miles ESE. of Tabriz. Here Persia concluded a treaty with Russia (1828).

Turks Islands

Turk's Islands. See Caicos.


Turnau (Toor-now), a town of Bohemia, on the Iser, 64 miles by rail NE. of Prague. Its specialty is jewellery. Here on 26th June 1866 the Prussians defeated the Austrians. Pop. 6500.


Turnberry, a shattered castle on the Ayrshire coast, 6 miles N. of Girvan. Either it or Loch-maben was Robert Bruce's birthplace. A lighthouse (1874) stands within the ruined walls.