Turin' (anc. Augusta Taurinorum; Ital. Torino), a city of Northern Italy, formerly capital of Piedmont, and for a time of the kingdom of Italy, is situated in a beautiful plain bounded by mountains, near the confluence of the Po and the Dora Riparia, 54 miles from the Cenis tunnel by rail, and SO NW. of Genoa. It stands at the meeting-point of several great roads through the Alps, and strategically has been of great importance. Really a very ancient city, it has a very modern appearance. Among its numerous churches are the cathedral, originally built in the 7th c., and reconstructed in 1498; San Filippo, the finest in Turin; La Consolata, containing a wonder-working Madonna; and a Wal-densian temple. On a hill near the town is La Superga, a splendid basilica, raised by Victor Amadeus to fulfil a vow, and now the mausoleum of the House of Savoy; its terrace, reached by a cable-railway, commands a glorious view. Other edifices are the royal palace; the Carignano Palace; the town-hall; the university, with 210 teachers and over 2800 students, a library of 250,000 volumes and 4000 MSS.; and the Accademia delle Scienze (once the Jesuit college). Among famous natives were Gioberti, Cesare Balbo, Cavour, Marochetti, D'Azeglio, and the French mathematician Lagrange. The manufactures include cotton, woollen, and silk fabrics, carpets, velvet hats, paper, iron, pottery, etc. Pop. (1700) 40,000; (1800) 42,000; (1881) 233,134; (1901) 335,656. Turin, originally inhabited by the Taurini, was sacked by Hannibal, and became a Roman colony under Augustus. The capital afterwards of a Lombard duchy, it fell in 1060 to the House of Savoy. It was held by the French (1536-62), and again taken in 1640; and in 1796 it was dismantled, in 1800 united to the French Republic. In 1815 restored to the House of Savoy, it was the capital of Sardinia till 1860, and from then to 1865, of the kingdom of Italy.