Turnhout

Turnhout (Tyrn-howt'), a town of Belgium, 26 miles ENE. of Antwerp. It has a palais de justice (1371), and manufactures of cotton, linen, lace, paper, etc. Pop. 21,000.

Turriff

Turriff, a police-burgh of Aberdeenshire, 38 1/2 miles NNW. of Aberdeen. Pop. 2270.

Turton

Turton, a town of Lancashire, 4 miles N. of Bolton. Pop. 12,355.

Tuscaloosa

Tuscaloo'sa, once the capital of Alabama, 55 miles by rail SW. of Birmingham, with the state university and insane asylum. Pop. 5100.

Tuscany

Tus'cany, formerly a sovereign grand-duchy in the west of Italy, lying for the most part, but not wholly, south and west of the Apennines, with an area of 9291 sq. m. Pop. (i860) 1,800,000; (1901) 2,548,154. The north and north-east of the country is filled with mountains, whence numerous rivers flow down to the sea, the most important the Arno. This district is also the source of the Tiber (q.v.). The rest of Tuscany is an undulating region of hill and dale, except the coasts, which are flat and marshy (see Maremma). Tuscany was first constituted in its present dimensions in 1569, when Cosimo de' Medici became Grand-duke. On August 16,1860, its national assembly pronounced the deposition of the reigning dynasty, and declared for annexation to Sardinia; and in February 1861 it was declared part of the new kingdom of Italy.

Tusculum

Tus'culum, anciently a city of Latium, whose ruins lie 15 miles S. of Rome.

Tuskar Rock

Tuskar Rock, 7 miles NE. of Carnsore Point, Wexford, has a lighthouse 110 feet high.

Tuskegee

Tuske'gee, 38 miles E. of Montgomery in Alabama, has a Normal and Industrial Institute for coloured persons (1881) under Booker T. Washington, a coloured man. Pop. 3000.

Tutbury

Tutbury, a town of Staffordshire, on the Dove, 6 miles NW. of Burton-on-Trent, with the ruins of the pre-Norman castle where Mary, Queen of Scots, was twice imprisoned. Pop. 1970.

Tuticorin

Tuticorin', a port at the SE. corner of India, 35 miles E. of Tinnevelli by rail, with pearl-fisheries and It. C. missions. Pop. 28,000.

Tuttlingen

Tuttlingen (Toot'ling-en), a town of Wurtem-berg, on the Danube, 20 miles WSW. of Sig-maringen. Pop. 13,500.

Tuxford

Tuxford, a town of Notts, 11 3/4 miles N. of Newark-upon-Trent. Pop. of parish, 1283.

Tver

Tver, capital of a Russian government at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa, 100 miles NW. of Moscow by rail. It manufactures cottons, hosiery, and nails. Pop. (1897) 53,477. - Area of government, 25,225 sq. m.; pop. 1,815,000.

Twat

Twat, or Tuat, an oasis in the western Sahara, 1000 miles SW. of Tripoli. Chief town, Ain Salah.

Tweedmouth

Tweedmouth. See Berwick-on-Tweed.

Twickenham

Twickenham, a town of Middlesex, on the north bank of the Thames, 11 1/2 miles SW. of London. It is a place of many villas, and has been the residence of many notabilities - Catharine of Aragon, Lord Bacon, Lord Clarendon, Pope (who is buried in the church), Horace Walpole (Strawberry Hill still remains, although a good deal altered), Kitty Clive, several of the Orleans family, J. M. W. Turner, Lord Tennyson, etc. Pop. (1851) 6254; (1901) 20,991. See R. S. Cobbett's Memorials of Twickenham (1872).