Ulm (Oolm), the second city of Wurtemberg, 58 miles SE. of Stuttgart and 91 WNW. of Munich, on the left bank of the Danube, which here receives the Blau and the Iller and becomes navigable. On the Bavarian side of the river is New Ulm (pop. 7593). Ulm till the war of 1866 was a fortress of the Germanic Confederation; its fortifications (1842-66) have since been greatly extended. The beautiful Protestant cathedral, next to that of Cologne the largest church in Germany, was built mainly in 1377-1494. It is 455 feet long, 186 broad, and 134 high; the tower and open-work spire (530 feet, the highest in the world) was only completed in 1890. The splendid organ (1856-88) has 6286 pipes. Other edifices are the 15th-century town-hall, the ' New Building' (1603) on the site of a palace of Charlemagne's, and the Teutonic Knights' Commandery (rebuilt 1718). Leading industries are the manufacture of cotton, woollen, and other textiles, of paper, leather, beer, etc., and Ulm is famed for pipe-bowls and pastry. Pop. (1871) 26,290; (1900) 42,9S2, of whom one-fourth were Catholics. The Romans had a settlement here. Ulm was in October 1805 the scene of the defeat by Ney of General Mack, and of his surrender with 28,000 Austrians. In 1802 it was attached to Bavaria, and in 1810 became part of Wurtemberg.