Ulster, the most northern of the four provinces of Ireland, is divided into nine counties - Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone. The north-eastern portion, now Down, was overrun in 1177 by John de Courci, and was the most permanent seat of English power in the north; but the 'plantation of Ulster' was not effected until the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Of this gigantic scheme of colonisation the chief seat was the county of Londonderry (q.v.). The Scottish element has long been dominant in some parts of Ulster, especially the north-east, but is very unequally distributed. The originally English and Scottish element varies from 75 per cent. in Antrim to about 20 in Cavan. In 1861 the whole pop. of Ulster was 1,914,236 (966,613 Roman Catholics); in 1871, owing to emigration, the numbers were 1,833,228 (897,230); in 1881, 1,730,542(833,566); and in 1901, 1,582,826, of whom 699,202 were Catholics, 425,526 Presby-terians, 360,373 Protestant Episcopalians. The distribution of confessions varies in different parts - the Protestants numbering 75 per cent. in Antrim, but only 20 per cent. in Cavan. The preponderance of Protestants in parts of Ulster has led to diversity of feeling and aims between Ulster and more thoroughly Catholic parts of Ireland; Ulsterinen have offered resolute resistance to Irish Home Rule. Belfast (q.v.) is the most enterprising town of Ulster and of Ireland; flax-spinning is the chief industry after agriculture Ulundi. See Zululand.