Valparaiso (ai as i; 'Vale of Paradise'), the second city of Chili, and next to San Francisco the principal American port on the Pacific, is situated on the bay of the same name, 115 miles by rail WNW. of Santiago, and 881 W. of Buenos Ayres by the Trans-Andean Railway. The city is built chiefly upon a sloping plain, cut up by ridges terminating in steep bluffs. Its long streets, with imposing churches, trams, gas, and electric light, suggest a European city. The old town, El Puerto, contains the vast customs warehouses, huge elevators, the mole and harbour, wharves, the exchange, post-office, and municipal palace, with a bronze statue of Lord Cochrane; above it rises the Cerro Alegre. Batteries crown the heights. Valparaiso's imports exceed £6,000,000 and its exports £1,000,000. It suffered from earthquakes in 1822, 1851, and 1906, when 5000 persons perished; was bombarded by a Spanish fleet in 1866; and after a three days' battle in the civil war of 1891, fell to the insurgents. Pop. (1905) 145,000.