Wal'tham, a market-town of Essex, on the Lea, 13 miles N. by E. of London. Called also Waltham Abbey and Waltham Holy Cross, it retains the nave of a stately Norman church, which, rebuilt by Harold in 1060 for a collegiate chapter, served from 1177 for an Augustinian abbey. A miraculous cross had been brought here from Montacute in Somerset; and here probably Harold was buried. Both the nave and a Decorated lady chapel have been restored; they serve for the parish church, of which Bishop Hall and Thomas Fuller were incumbents. Waltham has memories also of Cranmer and Henry VIII. Waltham Cross, erected by Edward I. in 1290 in memory of Queen Eleanor, and restored in 1890, is 1 1/4 mile W., in Hertfordshire; and 1 mile farther W. is Theobalds (q.v.). The Lea's many channels form a network of islands, on which are vast government powder-mills. Enfield (q.v.), in Middlesex, is also near, and market-gardening is largely carried on. Pop. (1851) 2329; (1901) 6547. See works by Fuller (1655; ed. by Nichols, 1837) and Bishop Stubbs (1860).