Windsor, a town of Berkshire, on the right bank of the Thames, opposite Eton, 21 1/4 miles W. by S. of London by rail, 43 by river. The kings before the Conquest appear to have had a hunting-lodge here; but the present stately royal castle is all of post-Conquest erection, owing much to Henry II., Henry III., Edward III. (the Round Tower), Edward IV., and Henry VII. (St George's Chapel), Charles II., and George IV., under whom Wyat-ville transformed the building. It was the birthplace of Edward III. and Henry VI., the death-place of George III., George IV., William IV., and Prince Albert; and the burial-place of Henry VI., Edward IV., Henry VIII., Charles I., the Duke of Clarence, etc. John was at Windsor after the granting of Magna Charta; and Edward III. established the Order of the Garter here. As we see it now Windsor Castle consists of an Upper and a Lower Ward, between which is the Mound and the Round Tower. In the Upper or eastern Ward are the Library, state apartments, Long Corridor, and private apartments. Wyatville ingeniously connected all the isolated towers and the curtain wall between by means of this corridor, which is 520 feet in length. The state apartments contain many good pictures and other works of art. In the Lower Ward is St George's Chapel, with its cloisters, the Deanery, and the Canons' Houses. The last named contain remains of the palace of Henry III. Adjoining to the westward are the Horseshoe Cloisters. Next to them are the barracks, including the Curfew Tower, built by Salvin. On the south side is the principal gate, called after Henry VIII. In a line with it are the houses of the Military Knights, a band of pensioners. The Round Tower is the residence of the constable, and from it floats the royal standard. Wyatville lived, till his death in 1840, in the Winchester Tower, called after William of Wykeham. Wyatville made Windsor what it is, and, though we may find fault with his details, his proportions and his eye for a grand scenic effect place him far ahead of any other architect of the so-called Gothic revival.
The town of New Windsor was chartered by Edward I. It contains some interesting old houses, but nothing that can with certainty be assigned to the days of Shakespeare's Merry Wives. Sir C. Wren, who was M.P. for the borough in 1688, built the town-hall in the market-place. The town is pleasantly situated close to the Home Park and the famous Long Walk, an avenue of elms 3 miles long, which leads to the Great Park. East of the Long Walk are the tombs of the Duchess of Kent and of the Prince Consort, in domed chapels; also Frogmore, the royal gardens, the farm and the dairy. The Great Park contains a church, Cumberland Lodge, and Virginia Water (q.v.). Since 1867 Windsor has returned only one member. Pop. (1851) 9596; (1901) 14,130.